Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Habitat of the Abadan Plain Basin: A Geological Review of a Prolific Middle Eastern Hydrocarbon Province
2. Geological Setting of the Abadan Plain Basin
- Almost continuous deposition of limestone, argillaceous limestone, marly limestone, and evaporites from Permian up to Pliocene in a marine environment;
- existing source rock, reservoir and cap rock in adequate placement;
- lack of intense tectonic activities during the period of Permian up to Pliocene (post collision tectonic settings), and;
- lack of metamorphic or magmatic activity since the Permian.
3. Abadan Plain Basin Stratigraphy
- Epicontinental platform (Cambrian to Permian).
- Continental rifting (Permian to Triassic).
- Passive continental margin (Jurassic to late Cretaceous).
- Marine and continental foreland (includes deposits from late Cretaceous to present).
- Permian: A sea-level rise that caused the deposition of the Faraghan sandstone formation in Lower Permian, and then sequences of reef carbonates in the Middle and Upper Permian in a supratidal environment.
- Triassic: A shallow marine and high-energy environment that formed the Khaneh Kat dolomitic formation. This formation is mainly cap rock with occasional gas shows in the porous members.
- Lower and Middle Jurassic: A closed sea environment covering the north of the Dezful Embayment and central Iraq, in which a series of evaporites, argillaceous limestone and a few shales were deposited.
- Upper Jurassic: A closed sea environment with evaporitic deposits such as the Gotnia Formation.
- Lower Cretaceous: Following the sea level rise in late Jurassic, a trough existed in the Lower Cretaceous in which the Garau shale has been deposited in Northern parts of the Dezful Embayment. Concurrently, Fahliyan and Darian formations were deposited in a shallow marine environment. Ghorbani  believes that the Fahliyan, Gadvan and Dariyan formations were all deposited in the trough conditions. The origin of sediments of the Gadvan Formation were from the erosion of the Arabian Shield outcrops in the Arabian Peninsula and Fars region .
- Middle Cretaceous: During the Albian-Cenomanian, the Fars platform was uplifted, but with concurrent sea level rise in adjacent areas. Erosional features are frequent prior to, and during, the Turonian. The Sarvak Formation was deposited before the erosion in the Cenomanian.
- Upper Cretaceous: Following the Turonian erosion, the Laffan shale (and concurrent Surgah shale) was deposited during the sea level rise. The Ilam neritic carbonate then overlaid the Laffan shale. Gurpi accumulations dominated the entire basin from the middle Santonian.
- Paleocene-Eocene: Cretaceous sea level rise made the depositional environment monotonic, while the Gurpi and Pabdeh formations, comprised of shale and carbonates, were deposited in a shallow marine to supratidal environment.
- Oligocene-Miocene: Prior to this time, sea level started falling and the region was exposed to the erosion. There was a narrow trough in the region, in which Oligocene deposits accumulated. After a primary rise, there has been a sea level fall that continues until the present-day.
4. Regional Tectonic History
- Mid to late Cretaceous time (115–85 Ma) corresponds to a distinctive period of perturbation of subduction processes and inter-plate mechanical coupling marked by blueschist exhumation and upper plate fragmentation;
- Paleocene–Eocene time (60–40 Ma) witnesses slab break-off, major shifts in arc magmatism and distributed extension within the upper plate;
- From the Oligocene time onwards (30 ± 5 Ma to present), collision develops with a progressive SW migration of deformation and topographic build-up, and is accompanied by a second, late Miocene slab break-off (~10 Ma to present).
5. Overburden in the Abadan Plain Basin
6. Pore Pressure in the Abadan Plain Basin
7. Summary of Hydrocarbon Geochemistry
Conflicts of Interest
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Atashbari, V.; Tingay, M.; Amrouch, K. Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Habitat of the Abadan Plain Basin: A Geological Review of a Prolific Middle Eastern Hydrocarbon Province. Geosciences 2018, 8, 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120496
Atashbari V, Tingay M, Amrouch K. Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Habitat of the Abadan Plain Basin: A Geological Review of a Prolific Middle Eastern Hydrocarbon Province. Geosciences. 2018; 8(12):496. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120496Chicago/Turabian Style
Atashbari, Vahid, Mark Tingay, and Khalid Amrouch. 2018. "Stratigraphy, Tectonics and Hydrocarbon Habitat of the Abadan Plain Basin: A Geological Review of a Prolific Middle Eastern Hydrocarbon Province" Geosciences 8, no. 12: 496. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8120496