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Geosciences 2018, 8(1), 31; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences8010031

Mangifera indica as Bioindicator of Mercury Atmospheric Contamination in an ASGM Area in North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia

1
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
2
Faculty of Collaborative Regional Innovation, Ehime University, Matsuyama 790-8577, Japan
3
CSIRO Mineral Resources Program, Rm 206, School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville VIC 3010, Australia
4
Cyclotron Research Centre, Iwate Medical University, 348-58 Tomegamori, Takizawa, Iwate 020-0173, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 November 2017 / Revised: 31 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract

We report the atmospheric Hg contamination in an artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) area in North Gorontalo, Indonesia. It is well known that atmospheric Hg contaminates the air, water, soil, and living organisms, including trees. In this study, we calculated total weight of heavy metals, especially Hg, and quantitatively measure the concentrations of heavy metals, especially Hg, in tree bark from an ASGM area. Tree bark can be used for the environmental assessment of atmospheric contamination because it attaches and absorbs heavy metals. Atmospheric Hg and other heavy metals, including Fe and Mn, and As were detected on the tree bark samples. The total weight of Hg, As, Fe, and Mn in the tree bark samples ranged from undetectable (ND) to 9.77, ND to 81.3, 124–4028, 37.0–1376 µg dry weight (DW), respectively per weight of sample. Based on quantitatively analysis micro-PIXE, the highest concentrations of all these metals were detected in the outer part of the bark. We conclude that tree bark can adsorb atmospheric contamination, which is then absorbed into the inner tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: atmospheric; mercury; ASGM; environmental; tree bark; heavy metals atmospheric; mercury; ASGM; environmental; tree bark; heavy metals
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Prasetia, H.; Sakakibara, M.; Omori, K.; Laird, J.S.; Sera, K.; Kurniawan, I.A. Mangifera indica as Bioindicator of Mercury Atmospheric Contamination in an ASGM Area in North Gorontalo Regency, Indonesia. Geosciences 2018, 8, 31.

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