Next Article in Journal
Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa
Next Article in Special Issue
Laboratory Testing of a MEMS Sensor System for In-Situ Monitoring of the Engineered Barrier in a Geological Disposal Facility
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Assessing the Long-Term Behaviour of the Industrial Bentonites Employed in a Repository for Radioactive Wastes by Studying Natural Bentonites in the Field
Open AccessArticle

Selection of Colloidal Silica Grouts with Respect to Gelling and Erosion Behaviour

Department of Engineering Science, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PJ, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Rebecca Lunn, Simon Harley, Simon Norris and Jesus Martinez-Frias
Geosciences 2017, 7(1), 6;
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 22 January 2017 / Published: 6 February 2017
Cembinder, Eka EXP36, and MEYCO MP320 are three colloidal silica materials that have been proposed for post-excavation grouting of deep tunnels in a radioactive waste repository. In this study, samples of these colloidal silicas were tested for their particle size distribution, gel induction time (tG), gel time (TG), and physical erosion, under mildly saline groundwater flow conditions. In order to achieve a desired gel time range, from 15 to 50 min, it is recommended that the colloidal silica is mixed with a NaCl accelerator at a 5:1 volume ratio. At 20 °C, the concentration range for the NaCl solution should be 1.5 to 1.7 M for MEYCO, 1.23 to 1.38 M for Eka EXP36, and 1.3 to 1.47 M for Cembinder. The physical erosion of the set silicas remained steady during a 10 h flow cell experiment, when grouts were subjected to 0.05 M NaCl at a superficial velocity of 2.2 × 10−5 m/s. For these test conditions, the results show that MEYCO has the highest average erosion rate (0.85 mg/h) of the three grout materials, as well as the greatest variability in this rate. Cembinder performed best with the lowest silica removal rate. Extrapolation of the measured erosion rates suggests that grout fracture dilation would not be significant under natural quiescent groundwater flow conditions, but would be high if there was hydraulic communication between the geosphere and the repository. View Full-Text
Keywords: colloidal silica; erosion; gel time; gel induction time colloidal silica; erosion; gel time; gel induction time
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Shen, P.; Hankins, N.; Jefferis, S. Selection of Colloidal Silica Grouts with Respect to Gelling and Erosion Behaviour. Geosciences 2017, 7, 6.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop