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Article

Investigation of Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric and Atmospheric Disturbances for Three Large Earthquakes in Mexico

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, Frederick University, 1036 Nicosia, Cyprus
2
Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, 117997 Moscow, Russia
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Pulchowk Campus, Institute of Engineering Tribhuvan University, Pulchowk, Lalitpur 44700, Nepal
4
Space Research Ins Geodetic and Geophysical Institute, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth Sciences, 9400 Sopron, Hungary
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Space Science Center, Indonesian National Institute of Aeronautics and Space, Jakarta 13710, Indonesia
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Department of Environmental Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, 67100 Xanthi, Greece
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Department of Geomatics Engineering, Gaziosmanpaşa University, 60150 Tokat, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2021, 11(1), 16; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010016
Received: 22 October 2020 / Revised: 7 December 2020 / Accepted: 24 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Detecting Geospace Perturbations Caused by Earth)
The purpose of the present study is to investigate simultaneously pre-earthquake ionospheric and atmospheric disturbances by the application of different methodologies, with the ultimate aim to detect their possible link with the impending seismic event. Three large earthquakes in Mexico are selected (8.2 Mw, 7.1 Mw and 6.6 Mw during 8 and 19 September 2017 and 21 January 2016 respectively), while ionospheric variations during the entire year 2017 prior to 37 earthquakes are also examined. In particular, Total Electron Content (TEC) retrieved from Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) networks and Atmospheric Chemical Potential (ACP) variations extracted from an atmospheric model are analyzed by performing statistical and spectral analysis on TEC measurements with the aid of Global Ionospheric Maps (GIMs), Ionospheric Precursor Mask (IPM) methodology and time series and regional maps of ACP. It is found that both large and short scale ionospheric anomalies occurring from few hours to a few days prior to the seismic events may be linked to the forthcoming events and most of them are nearly concurrent with atmospheric anomalies happening during the same day. This analysis also highlights that even in low-latitude areas it is possible to discern pre-earthquake ionospheric disturbances possibly linked with the imminent seismic events. View Full-Text
Keywords: earthquake; precursor; ionospheric; Mexico; radon; total electron content; atmospheric chemical potential earthquake; precursor; ionospheric; Mexico; radon; total electron content; atmospheric chemical potential
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MDPI and ACS Style

Oikonomou, C.; Haralambous, H.; Pulinets, S.; Khadka, A.; Paudel, S.R.; Barta, V.; Muslim, B.; Kourtidis, K.; Karagioras, A.; İnyurt, S. Investigation of Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric and Atmospheric Disturbances for Three Large Earthquakes in Mexico. Geosciences 2021, 11, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010016

AMA Style

Oikonomou C, Haralambous H, Pulinets S, Khadka A, Paudel SR, Barta V, Muslim B, Kourtidis K, Karagioras A, İnyurt S. Investigation of Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric and Atmospheric Disturbances for Three Large Earthquakes in Mexico. Geosciences. 2021; 11(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010016

Chicago/Turabian Style

Oikonomou, Christina, Haris Haralambous, Sergey Pulinets, Aakriti Khadka, Shukra R. Paudel, Veronika Barta, Buldan Muslim, Konstantinos Kourtidis, Athanasios Karagioras, and Samed İnyurt. 2021. "Investigation of Pre-Earthquake Ionospheric and Atmospheric Disturbances for Three Large Earthquakes in Mexico" Geosciences 11, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences11010016

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