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Clay Minerals and Detrital Material in Paleocene–Eocene Biogenic Siliceous Rocks (Sw Western Siberia): Implications for Volcanic and Depositional Environment Record

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Laboratory of Sedimentology and Paleobiosphere Evolution, University of Tyumen, Volodarskogo St. 6, 625003 Tyumen, Russia
2
Institute of Geology and Paleontology, Clausthal University of Technology, Adolph-Roemer-Straße 2A, 38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld, Germany
3
Laboratory of lithological and petrophysical studies of rocks, West Siberian Geological Center, Surgutskaya St. 11/2, 625002 Tyumen, Russia
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Institute of Geology and Petroleum Technology, Kazan Federal University, Kremlevskaya St. 4/5, 420008 Kazan Russia
5
Division for Geology, National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenina St. 30, 634050 Tomsk, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(5), 162; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10050162
Received: 10 February 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 27 April 2020 / Published: 29 April 2020
The paper presents the results of a study on clay minerals and detrital material of biosiliceous rocks (Paleocene–Eocene) from three sections in the Transuralian region. The authigenic processes in sediments resulted in the formation of dioctahedral clay minerals (illite, smectite) and insignificant amounts of sulfide phases (pyrite, hydrotroillite). Detrital minerals from the studied diatomites and diatomaceous clays often have a subangular and semi-rounded habit that is evidence of a low degree alteration of the sedimentary material in the provenance areas. The high degree of preservation of the bioclastic debris and the transformation of the limited volcanogenic substratum in clay minerals apparently was possible by initial burial diagenesis. The morphology of kaolinite and illite suggests that these mineral formations were caused by diagenesis with feldspars and smectites as a substrate for their formation. The smectite zone of weathering crust that developed on the adjacent land could have also served as a significant source of smectites entering the sea basin. The association with smectite in aggregates of mixed clayey composition indicates a sequential smectite-to-illite reaction via mixed-layered minerals. Such minerals as amphiboles, pyroxenes, and olivines, semi-stable to transportation and genetically associated with ultramafic rocks, form a significant part of the clastic fraction of the rock, indicating the proximity of provenance areas. This is the evident reason that the provenance areas made of mafic and ultramafic rocks played an essential role. View Full-Text
Keywords: siliceous rocks; diatomite; diatomaceous clays; Transuralian region; Western Siberia; PETM siliceous rocks; diatomite; diatomaceous clays; Transuralian region; Western Siberia; PETM
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Smirnov, P.; Deryagina, O.; Afanasieva, N.; Rudmin, M.; Gursky, H.-J. Clay Minerals and Detrital Material in Paleocene–Eocene Biogenic Siliceous Rocks (Sw Western Siberia): Implications for Volcanic and Depositional Environment Record. Geosciences 2020, 10, 162.

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