Next Article in Journal
Dreaming of Perfect Data: Characterizing Noise in Archaeo-Geophysical Measurements
Next Article in Special Issue
Earth Tides and H2 Venting in the Sao Francisco Basin, Brazil
Previous Article in Journal
An Extension of the Data-Adaptive Probability-Based Electrical Resistivity Tomography Inversion Method (E-PERTI)
Previous Article in Special Issue
Migration of Natural Hydrogen from Deep-Seated Sources in the São Francisco Basin, Brazil
Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Shale Source Rocks and Clay Mineral Diagenesis in the Permian Basin, USA: Inferences on Basin Thermal Maturity and Source Rock Potential

1
Department of Geosciences, Texas Tech University, 1200 Memorial Circle, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
2
Department of Earth Sciences, University of Geneva, Rue des Maraîchers 13, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland
3
Institut des sciences de la Terre, Université de Lausanne, Bâtiment GEOPOLIS, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Geosciences 2020, 10(10), 381; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences10100381
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 17 September 2020 / Accepted: 19 September 2020 / Published: 23 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Temperature in Sedimentary Basins)
The use of mineral diagenetic indices and organic matter maturity is useful for reconstructing the evolution of sedimentary basins and critical assessments for potential source rocks for petroleum exploration. In this study, the relationship of clay mineral diagenesis and organic matter thermal indices (Rock-Eval Tmax) and calculated vitrinite reflectance (%Ro) were used to constrain the maximum burial depths and temperatures of three distinct intervals within the northern Permian Basin, USA. X-ray diffraction of clay fractions (<2 µm) consists of illite, chlorite, and illite-smectite intermediates. Primary clay mineral diagenetic changes progressively increase in ordering from R0 to R1 I-S between 2359.5 and 2485.9 m and the appearance of chlorite at 2338.7 m. Rock-Eval pyrolysis data show 0 to 14 wt% TOC, HI values of 40 to 520 mgHC/g TOC, and S2 values of 0 to 62 mg HC/g, with primarily type II kerogen with calculated %Ro within the early to peak oil maturation window. Evaluation of the potential for oil generation is relatively good throughout the Tonya 401 and JP Chilton wells. Organic maturation indices (Tmax, %Ro) and peak burial temperatures correlate well with clay mineral diagenesis (R0–R1 I-S), indicating that maximum burial depths and temperatures were between 2.5 and 4 km and <100 °C and 140 °C, respectively. Additionally, the use of clay mineral-derived temperatures provides insight into discrepancies between several calculated %Ro equations and thus should be further investigated for use in the Permian Basin. Accordingly, these findings show that clay mineral diagenesis, combined with other paleothermal proxies, can considerably improve the understanding of the complex burial history of the Permian Basin in the context of the evolution of the southern margin of Laurentia. View Full-Text
Keywords: shale diagenesis; thermal maturity; clay minerals; source rocks; Permian Basin shale diagenesis; thermal maturity; clay minerals; source rocks; Permian Basin
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Green, H.; Šegvić, B.; Zanoni, G.; Omodeo-Salé, S.; Adatte, T. Evaluation of Shale Source Rocks and Clay Mineral Diagenesis in the Permian Basin, USA: Inferences on Basin Thermal Maturity and Source Rock Potential. Geosciences 2020, 10, 381.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop