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Examination of the Expression of Immunity Genes and Bacterial Profiles in the Caecum of Growing Chickens Infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and Fed a Phytobiotic

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BIOTROF+ Ltd., 8 Malinovskaya St., liter A, 7-N, Pushkin, 196602 St. Petersburg, Russia
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K. I. Skryabin Moscow State Academy of Veterinary Medicine and Biotechnology, 23 Akademika Skryabina St., 109472 Moscow, Russia
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All-Russian Veterinary Research Institute of Poultry Science—Branch of the Federal State Budget Scientific Institution Federal Scientific Centre ‘All-Russian Poultry Research and Technological Institute’ of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 48 Chernikova St., Lomonosov, 198412 St. Petersburg, Russia
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Department of Microbiology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Trakia University, 6000 Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
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Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Szent Istvan University, H-2103 Gödöllo, Hungary
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School of Biosciences, University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(9), 615; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9090615
Received: 23 April 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 10 August 2019 / Published: 27 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
Salmonellosis is among the most common infectious poultry diseases that also represent a high risk to human health. The pathological process caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) triggers in the caecum the expression of certain genes, e.g., avian β-defensins (gallinacins), cytokines (interleukins), etc. On the other hand, gut microbiota influences the infection potential of pathogens. The present study aimed at revealing the differential expression of genes associated with the immune system and changes in the bacterial communities in the intestine of growing chickens in response to SE infection. We also tested a feed additive, essential oils-based phytobiotic Intebio, as a potential alternative to antibiotics and showed effects of its administration on the caecal microbiome composition and the expression of some genes related to immunity. The phytobiotic showed its efficiency for application in poultry rearing and production.
This study was performed to investigate the differential expression of eight immunity genes and the bacterial profiles in the caecum of growing chickens challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) at 1 and 23 days post inoculation (dpi) in response to SE infection at 19 days of age and administration of the phytobiotic Intebio. Following infection, the genes CASP6 and IRF7 were upregulated by greater than twofold. Chicks fed Intebio showed at 1 dpi upregulation of AvBD10, IL6, IL8L2, CASP6 and IRF7. At 23 dpi, expression of AvBD11, IL6, IL8L2, CASP6 and IRF7 lowered in the experiment subgroups as compared with the control. Examination of the caecal contents at 1 dpi demonstrated a significant decrease in the microbial biodiversity in the infected subgroup fed normal diet. Bacterial content of Lactobacillus and Bacillus declined, while that of Enterobacteriaceae rose. In the infected subgroup fed Intebio, a pronounced change in composition of the microflora was not observed. In the early infection stages, the phytobiotic seemed to promote response to infection. Subsequently, an earlier suppression of the inflammatory reaction took place in chickens fed Intebio. Thus, use of Intebio as a drug with phytobiotic activity in chickens, including those infected with Salmonella, proved to be promising. View Full-Text
Keywords: gene expression; real-time qPCR; Salmonella; infection; phytobiotic; caecum; microbiome; T-RFLP; poultry; chickens gene expression; real-time qPCR; Salmonella; infection; phytobiotic; caecum; microbiome; T-RFLP; poultry; chickens
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Laptev, G.Y.; Filippova, V.A.; Kochish, I.I.; Yildirim, E.A.; Ilina, L.A.; Dubrovin, A.V.; Brazhnik, E.A.; Novikova, N.I.; Novikova, O.B.; Dmitrieva, M.E.; Smolensky, V.I.; Surai, P.F.; Griffin, D.K.; Romanov, M.N. Examination of the Expression of Immunity Genes and Bacterial Profiles in the Caecum of Growing Chickens Infected with Salmonella Enteritidis and Fed a Phytobiotic. Animals 2019, 9, 615.

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