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The Effects of Sea and Road Transport on Physiological and Electroencephalographic Responses in Brahman Crossbred Heifers

1
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Department of Preclinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Department of Animal Science, College of Agriculture, University of Southern Mindanao, Kabacan 9407, North Cotabato, Philippines
6
Department of Animal Resource, College of Agriculture, Salahaddin University-Erbil, Kurdistan Region 44002, Iraq
7
Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum 13314, Sudan
8
Department of Veterinary Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
9
Building 8143, Centre of Animal Welfare and Ethics (CAWE), School of Veterinary Science, University of Queensland, Gatton, Queensland 4343, Australia
10
Department of Veterinary Services, Wisma Tani, Blok Podium, Lot 4G1, No. 28, Persiaran Perdana, Presint 4, Federal Government Administrative Centre, Putrajaya 62630, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(5), 199; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9050199
Received: 17 January 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 26 March 2019 / Published: 27 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Welfare)
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Simple Summary

This study investigated the effect of sea and road transport on the physiological response of cattle. The animals were transported by sea (14 d) from Darwin Port, Australia, to Pasir Gudang Port, Johor, Malaysia. Thereafter, the animals were road transported (330 km) from Pasir Gudang Port to Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM). From the results of the various blood stress indicators and brain activity of the animals, both sea and road journeys were found to be stressful to the animals. However, the animals recovered from the stressful transport journeys following 4 and 7 days post-transport.

Abstract

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of sea and road transport on the acute phase proteins (APP), cortisol, metabolic, haematological and electroencephalographic (EEG) responses of Brahman crossbred heifers. Sixty Brahman crossbred heifers were subjected to 14 d of transportation by sea from Darwin Port, Australia, to Pasir Gudang Port, Johor, Malaysia, and 330 km of road transportation. Results revealed that the intensity of response for most blood biochemical parameters increased significantly and were different from the baseline values taken while the animals were in Darwin Port, Australia. Haematological results obtained also revealed a significant increase and were different from the baseline values. Cortisol and APP (bovine alpha 1-acid glycoprotein and serum amyloid-A) values increased significantly and were different from the baseline values. Haematological parameters, APP, cortisol and EEG data (alpha, beta, delta and theta waves, total power and median frequency) decreased significantly following 4 and 7 days post-transport, suggesting a recovery of the animals from the stressfulness of transport. In conclusion, the current results revealed that the concentrations of biochemical and haematological parameters, cortisol, APP and EEG data were affected by both sea and road transport as evidenced by the significant changes recorded from the parameters above. View Full-Text
Keywords: Brahman crossbred cattle; sea and road transport; welfare; cortisol; acute phase proteins; haematological indicators; blood biochemical; electroencephalographic response Brahman crossbred cattle; sea and road transport; welfare; cortisol; acute phase proteins; haematological indicators; blood biochemical; electroencephalographic response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zulkifli, I.; Abubakar, A.A.; Sazili, A.Q.; Goh, Y.M.; Imlan, J.C.; Kaka, U.; Sabow, A.B.; Awad, E.A.; Othman, A.H.; Raghazali, R.; Phillips, C.J.; Quaza Nizamuddin, H.N.; Mitin, H. The Effects of Sea and Road Transport on Physiological and Electroencephalographic Responses in Brahman Crossbred Heifers. Animals 2019, 9, 199.

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