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Assessing Affective State in Laboratory Rodents to Promote Animal Welfare—What Is the Progress in Applied Refinement Research?

1
Department Animal Welfare and 3R, University of Zurich, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
2
German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), German Center for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R), 12277 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Freie University Berlin, 14163 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2019, 9(12), 1026; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani9121026
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 18 November 2019 / Accepted: 21 November 2019 / Published: 25 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 60 Years of the Three Rs and Their Impact on Animal Welfare)
In the past, there was a strong focus on avoiding or reducing negative animal welfare in animal experimentation. Recently, the importance of promoting positive animal welfare in laboratory animals has been highlighted. To ensure and promote positive animal welfare, reliable methods to evaluate the animal’s emotional state are important. Important achievements have been made to assess pain and other negative states in animals in the last decades, and only recently have positive emotions been gaining more interest. Therefore, more methods allowing the assessment of emotional states in animals have been introduced. In this overview article, we present common and emerging methods to assess emotions in laboratory rodents. We focus on the use of these methods in applied refinement research to identify achieved progress as well as the potential of these tools to improve animal welfare in animal-based research and animal experimentation.
An animal’s capacity to suffer is a prerequisite for any animal welfare concern, and the minimization of suffering is a key aim of refinement research. In contrast to the traditional focus on avoiding or reducing negative welfare states, modern animal welfare concepts highlight the importance of promoting positive welfare states in laboratory animals. Reliable assessments of affective states, as well as the knowledge of how to elicit positive affective states, are central to this concept. Important achievements have been made to assess pain and other negative affective states in animals in the last decades, but it is only recently that the neurobiology of positive emotions in humans and animals has been gaining more interest. Thereby, the need for promotion of positive affective states for laboratory animals is gaining more acceptance, and methods allowing the assessment of affective states in animals have been increasingly introduced. In this overview article, we present common and emerging methods to assess affective states in laboratory rodents. We focus on the implementation of these methods into applied refinement research to identify achieved progress as well as the future potential of these tools to improve animal welfare in animal-based research. View Full-Text
Keywords: refinement; animal welfare; affective state; rodents; animal experiment refinement; animal welfare; affective state; rodents; animal experiment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jirkof, P.; Rudeck, J.; Lewejohann, L. Assessing Affective State in Laboratory Rodents to Promote Animal Welfare—What Is the Progress in Applied Refinement Research? Animals 2019, 9, 1026.

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