No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks
If someone calls for themselves or a family member or friend, this is a good opportunity to provide someone with information about emergency planning resources and to encourage them to undertake some planning activities or to prompt the person they are calling about to connect with local community or personal networks.
3. What Do Animals Have to Do with Disaster Resilience?
- Proximity maintenance—they are sought out and available in times of need;
- Safe haven—they offer protection and support to relieve distress;
- Secure base—they act as a reliable presence that facilitates and permits risk-taking and exploration; and
- Separation distress—prompted by separation from or actual loss of the figure .
4. Vulnerable Groups and the Roles of Animals in Their Lives
4.1. Indigenous Australians Living in Remote Communities
4.2. Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities
4.3. Children and Youth
4.4. Older People
In addition to chronic health conditions, older adults may have impaired physical mobility or cognitive ability, diminished sensory awareness, and social and economic limitations. For example, declining vision or hearing can make it difficult for an older adult to communicate. Older adults with cognitive problems may become agitated during a crisis or feel overwhelmed by the crowding, noise, and lack of privacy in a shelter. They may need assistance to ensure that they have their medications, adequate nutrition and water, and assistive devices. (p. 2)
4.5. People with Disabilities
4.6. The Homeless
4.7. People with Mental Health Issues
5. Results and Discussion
5.1. How do Animals Impact the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups?
- Perception and recognition of disasters. For example, assistance animals can help in alerting older people to sirens or other emergency warnings.
- Evacuation decisions. For example, homeless people may refuse shelters if they cannot be accompanied by their animals.
- Evacuation behavior. For example, separation from animals can immobilize owners with disability.
- Evacuation experience. For example, separation from animals can exacerbate the social anxiety of those with mental health issues, whilst the presence of animals in shelters may induce anxiety in some CALD people.
- Recovery from disaster. For example, without hunting dogs, Indigenous Australians’ ability to hunt for food may be compromised. The loss of pets can increase risk of stress disorders in children and social isolation in older people.
5.2. What Role Could Animal Attachment Play in Building the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable People?
5.3. Recommendations for Further Research
- Systematic collection of data on pet and animal ownership (by the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) or Australian Companion Animal Council (ACAC)) that can indicate or provide:
- The vulnerability of respondents.
- Incidence and prevalence of pet and animal owners.
- The numbers and types of pets and animals owned.
- Language spoken at home.
- Forecasting of pet and animal ownership trends, especially for CALD groups.
- An understanding of the impact of non-domestic/non-household animals (i.e., birds, horses, donkeys, alpacas) on vulnerable people
- A social network analysis to comprehensively understand animal-related social networks, including their reach and media and communication channels
- A study of the most effective ways of using animal attachment and animal-related activities and networks to promote disaster resilience (media communication, etc.)
- A study of the most effective ways for vulnerable people to evacuate with their animals (e.g., interactions with responders)
- Practical translation of plans for vulnerable people to evacuate with their animals for the purposes of identifying barriers to best practice and areas requiring further information and assistance (such as walkthroughs)
- An understanding of the role of pets and animals in rebuilding lives and communities after a disaster, with a focus on vulnerable groups or a consideration of vulnerability as it applies to all those who have survived disasters
- Other vulnerable groups, such as:
- People who live alone or without ‘personal or community support networks to help them in an emergency’ (who are likely to meet the criteria for Vulnerable Persons Registers)  (pp. 4–5).
- Indigenous Australians living in non-remote communities.
- Non-indigenous Australians living in remote communities.
- People who have previously survived a disaster.
- Animals (and how humans impact their disaster resilience, building on Irvine’s  research).
Conflicts of Interest
- Heath, S.E.; Voeks, S.K.; Glickman, L.T. Epidemiologic features of pet evacuation failure in a rapid-onset disaster. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 2001, 218, 1898–1904. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heath, S.E.; Kass, P.H.; Beck, A.M.; Glickman, L.T. Human and Pet-related Risk Factors for Household Evacuation Failure During a Natural Disaster. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2001, 153, 659–665. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thompson, K. Save me, save my dog: Increasing natural disaster preparedness and survival by addressing human-animal relationships. Austr. J. Commun. 2013, 40, 123–136. [Google Scholar]
- National Strategy for Disaster Resilience: Building Our Nation's Resilience to Disasters; Council of Australian Governments: Canberra, Australia, 2011.
- Comnmunique 4–5 July 2013; Standing Council on Police and Emergency Management: Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia, 2013.
- Higgins, J.W.; Temple, V.; Murray, H.; Kumm, E.; Rhodes, R. Walking Sole Mates: Dogs Motivating, Enabling and Supporting Guardians' Physical Activity. Anthrozoos 2013, 26, 237–252. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Health and Human Services Emergency Management. Vulnerable Persons Registgers (VPRs): Getting Started; Department of Health Services, State Government of Victoria: Melbourne, Australia, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Bowlby, J. Attachment: Attachment and Loss, 2nd ed.; Basic Books: New York, NY, USA, 1999. [Google Scholar]
- Ainsworth, M.D.S. Attachments and other affectional bonds across the life cycle. In Attachment Across the Life Cycle; Parkes, C.M., Stevenson-Hinde, J., Marris, P., Eds.; Routledge: London, UK, 1991; pp. 33–51. [Google Scholar]
- Archer, J. Why do people love their pets? Evol. Human Behav. 1997, 18, 237–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Archer, J.; Ireland, J.L. The Development and Factor Structure of a Questionnaire Measure of the Strength of Attachment to Pet Dogs. Anthrozoos 2011, 24, 249–261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Beck, L.; Madresh, E.A. Romantic Partners and Four-Legged Friends: An Extension of Attachment Theory to Relationships with Pets. Anthrozoos 2008, 21, 43–56. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mikulincer, M.; Shaver, P.R. The attachment behavioral system: Basic concepts and principles. In Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics, and Change; The Guilford Press: New York, NY, USA, 2007; pp. 3–28. [Google Scholar]
- Kurdek, L.A. Pet dogs as attachment figures. J. Soc. Person. Relat. 2008, 25, 247–266. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kurdek, L.A. Young adults' attachment to pet dogs: Findings from open-ended methods. Anthrozoos 2009, 22, 359–369. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ainsworth, M.D.S. Attachments beyond infancy. Am. Psychol. 1989, 44, 709–716. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Due, C.; Thompson, K.; Every, D. ‘An image of hope in a week of despair’: Representations of ‘Sam the Koala’ in the Australian mainstream news media. Media Int. Austr. 2014, in press. [Google Scholar]
- Every, D.; Due, C.; Thompson, K.; Ryan, J. “I know it sounds silly, but my pets mean the world to me”: Conflicting perspectives on animal rescues in natural disasters. Soc. Anim. 2014, in press. [Google Scholar]
- Belk, R.W. Possessions and the Extended Self. J. Consum. Res. 1988, 15, 139–168. [Google Scholar]
- Belk, R.W. Metaphoric Relationships with Pets. Soc. Anim. 1996, 4, 121–145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Irvine, L. Filling the Ark: Animal Welfare in Disasters; Temple University Press: Philadelphia, PA, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Schaffer, C.B. Human-Animal Bond Considerations During Disasters. 8 April 2011. Available online: http://www.integratedtrainingsummit.org/presentations/2009/main_training_summit/47_-_human-animal_bond_considerations_during_disasters_-_schaffer_caroline.pdf (accessed on 22 April 2014).
- Hall, M.J.; Ng, A.; Ursano, R.J.; Holloway, H.; Fullerton, C.; Casper, J. Psychological Impact of the Animal-Human Bond in Disaster Preparedness and Response. J. Psychiat. Pract. 2004, 10, 368–374. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Irvine, L. Animals in Disasters: Issues for Animal Liberation Activism and Policy. Anim. Liber. Phil. Policy J. 2006, 4, 1–16. [Google Scholar]
- Irvine, L. Animals in Disasters: Responsibility and Action (Policy Paper); Animals and Society Institute: Boston, MA, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Leonard, H.A.; Scammon, D.L. No Pet Left Behind: Accommodating Pets in Emergency Planning. J. Publ. Policy Market. 2007, 26, 49–53. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lowe, S.R.; Rhodes, J.E.; Zwiebach, L.; Chan, C.S. The impact of pet loss on the perceived social support and psychological distress of hurricane survivors. J. Traum. Stress 2009, 22, 244–247. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zottarelli, L.K. Broken Bond: An Exploration of Human Factors Associated with Companion Animal Loss During Hurricane Katrina1. Sociol. Forum 2010, 25, 110–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Coates, L. Flood Fatalities in Australia, 1788–1996. Austr. Geographer. 1999, 30, 391–408. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Howlett, M.; Turnbull, C. Large Animal Emergency Rescue Training; AgriFoods Skills Australia International Specialised Skills Institute: Carlton, Australia, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- ACAC. Contribution of the Pet Care Industry to the Australian Economy, 6th ed.; BIS Shrapnel: Sydney, Australia, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- ACAC. Contribution of the Pet Care Industry to the Australian Economy, 7th ed.; BIS Shrapnel: Sydney, Australia, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Gerwolls, M.K.; Labott, S.M. Adjustment to the Death of a Companion Animal. Anthrozoos 1994, 7, 172–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Planchon, L.A.; Templer, D.I. The Correlates of Grief after Death of Pet. Anthrozoos 1996, 9, 107–113. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hunt, M.; Al-Awadi, H.; Johnson, M. Psychological Sequelae of Pet Loss Following Hurricane Katrina. Anthrozoos 2008, 21, 109–121. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rockefeller Foundation. Rebound: Building a More Resilient World. Rockefeller Foundation: New York, NY, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- McAslan, A. Community Resilience: Understanding the Concept and it Application; Torrens Resilience Institute: Adelaide, Australia, 2010. [Google Scholar]
- Putnam, R.D. Bowling alone: America’s declining social capital. J. Democr. 1995, 6, 65–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wood, L.; Giles-Corti, B.; Bulsara, M. The pet connection: Pets as a conduit for social capital? Soc. Sci. Med. 2005, 61, 1159–1173. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Health and Human Services Emergency Management. Vulnerable Peple in Emergencies Policy; Department of Health and Human Services, State Government of Victoria: Melbourne, Australia, 2012.
- Kirmayer, L.J.; Whitley, R.; Dandeneau, S.F.; Isaac, C. Community Resilience: Models, Metaphors and Measures. Int. J. Indigenous Health 2009, 5, 62–117. [Google Scholar]
- Valentine, D.; Kiddoo, M.; LaFleur, B. Psychosocial Implications of Service Dog Ownership for People Who Have Mobility or Hearing Impairments. Soc. Work Health Care 1993, 19, 109–125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Information Paper: Perspectives on Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Identification in Selected Data Collection Contexts, 2012; Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS): Belconnen, Australia, 2013.
- Council of Australian Governments (COAG). Improving Emergency Management Outcomes for Remote Indigenous Communites in Northern Australia; COAG Review of Natural Disaster Relief and Mitigation Arrangements; Department of Transport and Regional Services: Canberra, Australia, 2002.
- Ellemor, H. Reconsidering emergency management and indigenous communities in Australia. Environ. Hazards 2005, 6, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Constable, S.; Dixon, R.; Dixon, R. For the Love of Dog: The Human & Dog Bond in Rural and Remote Australian Indigenous Communities. Anthrozoos 2010, 23, 337–349. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Senior, K.; Chenhall, R.; McRae-Williams, E.; Daniels, D.; Rogers, K. Dogs and people in Aboriginal communities: Exploring the relationship within the context of the social determinants of health. Environ. Health 2006, 6, 39–46. [Google Scholar]
- White, I. Hunting dogs at Yalata. Mankind 1972, 8, 201–205. [Google Scholar]
- Smith, B.P.; Litchfield, C.A. A Review of the Relationship between Indigenous Australians, Dingoes (Canis dingo) and Domestic Dogs (Canis familiaris). Anthrozoos 2009, 22, 111–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rose, D.B. Dingo Makes Us Human: Life and Land in an Australian Aboriginal Culture; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2000. [Google Scholar]
- Phelan, S. Conducting Dog Health Programs in Indigenous Communities: A Veterinary Guide; Report Commissioned by Animal Management in Rural and Remote Indigenous Communities (AMRRIC) and International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW); AMRRIC: Darwin, Australia, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Brinkley, C. Kiwirrkurra: The flood in the desert. Austr. J. Emerg. Manag. 2009, 24, 67–70. [Google Scholar]
- 2011 Census QuickStats. People. Cultural & Language Diversity. Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 2011. Available online: http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/quickstat/0 (accessed on 22 April 2014).
- Elder, K.; Xirasagar, S.; Miller, N.; Bowen, S.A.; Glover, S.; Piper, C. African Americans’ decisions not to evacuate New Orleans before Hurricane Katrina: A qualitative study. Am. J. Publ. Health 2007, 97 (Suppl. 1), S124–S129. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ghosh, T.S.; Patnaik, J.L.; Vogt, R.L. Rapid needs assessment among Hurricane Katrina evacuees in metro-Denver. J. Health Care Poor Underserved 2007, 18, 362–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mathew, A.B.; Kelly, K. Disaster Preparedness in Urban Immigrant Communities: Lessons Learned from Recent Catastrophic Events and Their Relevance to Latino and Asian Communities in Southern California; Tomás Rivera Policy Institute, University of Southern California: Los Angeles, CA, USA, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Hurworth, R. CALD Communities and Emergency Management: A Literature Synthesis; Centre for Program Evaluation, The University of Melbourne: Melbourne, Australia, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Blazer, J.; Murphy, B. Addressing the Needs of Immigrants and Limited English Communities in Disaster Planning and Relief. Lessons for Government, Disaster Relief Agencies, and Community-Based Organizations. Immigrants’ Rights Update 2008, 22, 1–11. [Google Scholar]
- Ziaian, T.; de Anstiss, H.; Antoniou, G.; Baghurst, P.; Sawyer, M. Emotional and behavioural problems among refugee children and adolescents living in South Australia. Austr. Psychol. 2011, 48, 139–148. [Google Scholar]
- Dean, B. Emergency Planning for Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (Cald) Communities. In Proceedings of Policing Partnerships in a Multicultural Australia: Achievements and Challenges Conference, Brisbane, Australia, 25–26 October 2001.
- CAMS Submission to the Queensland Floods Commission of Inquiry Queensland; Ethnic Communities Council of Queensland: West End, Australia, 2011.
- Guidelines for Emergency Management in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Communities; Emergency Management Australia, Commonwealth of Australia: Dickson, Australia, 2007.
- Elmore, R.G. Reasons for the lack of racial diversity in veterinary medicine. J. Vet. Med. Educ. 2004, 31, 414–416. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gardyn, R. Animal magnetism. Am. Demogr. 2002, 24, 31–37. [Google Scholar]
- 1999–2000 APPMA National Pet Owners Survey; American Pet Products Manufacturing Association (APPMA): Greenwich, CT, USA, 2000.
- Hood, J. Pet Ownership and Asian Multiculturalism. In Proceedings of the Urban Animal Management Conferences in Australia, Perth, Australia, 7–9 October 1998.
- Raja, M.A. Muslim Modernity: Poetics, Politics, and Metaphysics. Muslim Societies and the Challenge of Secularization: An Interdisciplinary Approach; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2010; pp. 99–111. [Google Scholar]
- Walker, R.; Robinson, P.; Tebbutt, J.; Lin, V.; Bisset, P.; Burns, R.; Schauble, J. Emergency Management Risk Communication Project; Final Report to Department of Human Services (Victoria); School of Publica Health, La Trobe University: Melbourne, Australia, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Farrow, D.; Rutter, A.; Hurworth, R. Evaluation of the Inclusive Emergency Management with Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CALD) Communities Program, July 2006–June 2010; Centre for Program Evaluation, The University of Melbourne: Melbourne, Australia, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Understanding Policy Development and Implementation for Children and Young People; UNESCO, Children and Youth Programme: Galway, Ireland, 2012.
- 2011 Census of Population and Housing: Basic Community Profile—Australia. Available online: http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/census_services/getproduct/census/2011/communityprofile/0 (accessed on 22 April 2014).
- Green, B.L.; Korol, M.; Grace, M.C.; Vary, M.G.; Leonard, A.C.; Gleser, G.C.; Smitson-Cohen, S. Children and disaster: Age, gender, and parental effects on PTSD symptoms. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolescent Psychiat. 1991, 30, 945–951. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shannon, M.P.; Lonigan, C.J.; Finch, A.; Taylor, C.M. Children exposed to disaster: I. Epidemiology of post-traumatic symptoms and symptom profiles. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolescent Psychiat. 1994, 33, 80–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thienkrua, W.; Cardozo, B.L.; Chakkraband, M.S.; Guadamuz, T.E.; Pengjuntr, W.; Tantipiwatanaskul, P.; Sakornsatian, S.; Ekassawin, S.; Panyayong, B.; Varangrat, A.; et al. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression among children in tsunami-affected areas in southern Thailand. JAMA 2006, 296, 549–559. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Udwin, O.; Boyle, S.; Yule, W.; Bolton, D.; O’Ryan, D. Risk Factors for Long-term Psychological Effects of a Disaster Experienced in Adolescence: Predictors of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. J. Child Psychol. Psychiat. 2000, 41, 969–979. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vernberg, E.M.; La Greca, A.M.; Silverman, W.K.; Prinstein, M.J. Prediction of posttraumatic stress symptoms in children after Hurricane Andrew. J. Abnormal Psychol. 1996, 105, 237–248. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wooding, S.; Raphael, B. Psychological impact of disasters and terrorism on children and adolescents: experiences from Australia. Prehospital Disaster Med. 2004, 19, 10–20. [Google Scholar]
- Gurwitch, R.H.; Kees, M.; Becker, S.M.; Schreiber, M.; Pfefferbaum, B.; Diamond, D. When disaster strikes: Responding to the needs of children. Prehospital Disaster Med. 2004, 19, 21–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ronan, K.; Johnston, D. Promoting Community Resilience in Disasters: The Role for Schools, Youth, and Families; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Foster, H.; Towers, B.; Whittaker, J.; Handmer, J.; Lowe, T. Peri-Urban Melbourne in 2021: Changes and Implications for the Victorian Emergency Management Sector; Bushfire and Natural Hazards CRC: Melbourne, Australia, 2012; Volume 28. [Google Scholar]
- Ansell, N. Children, Youth and Development; Routledge: London, UK, 2004. [Google Scholar]
- Anderson, W.A. Bringing children into focus on the social science disaster research agenda. Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters 2005, 23, 159–175. [Google Scholar]
- Mitchell, T.; Haynes, K.; Wei, C.; Oven, K. The Roles of Children and Youth in Communicating Disaster Risk. Child. Youth Environ. 2008, 18, 254–279. [Google Scholar]
- Chaseling, S. Pet populations in Australia. Dogs increasing and cats decreasing—Why is it so? In Proceedings of the 10th Urban Animal Management Conference in Australia, Melbourne, Australia, 2001.
- Kaminski, M.; Pellino, T.; Wish, J. Play and pets: The physical and emotional impact of child-life and pet therapy on hospitalized children. Child. Health Care 2002, 31, 321–335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Timperio, A.; Salmon, J.; Chu, B.; Andrianopoulos, N. Is dog ownership or dog walking associated with weight status in children and their parents? Health Promot. J. Austr. 2008, 19, 60–63. [Google Scholar]
- Assistance Dogs Australia. 2013. Available online: http://www.assistancedogs.org.au/pages/paws-program.html (accessed on 22 April 2014).
- Smart Pup. Autism Assist Dogs 2013. Available online: http://www.smartpups.org.au/ (accessed on 2 December 2013).
- Dogs for Kids with Disabilities (DKD). 2013. Available online: http://www.dogsforkidswithdisabilities.com/default.html (accessed on 2 December 2013).
- The Power of Pets: The Benefits of Companion Animal Ownership; Australian Companion Animal Council Inc.: St Leonards, Australia, 2009.
- Nagengast, S.; Baun, M.; Megel, M.; Liebowitz, J. The effects of the presence of a companion animal of physiological arousal and behavioral distress in children. J. Pediat. Nurs. 1997, 12, 323–330. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tsai, C.-C.; Friedmann, E.; Thomas, S.A. The effect of animal-assisted therapy on stress responses in hospitalized children. Anthrozoos 2010, 23, 245–258. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ross, C.B.; Baron-Sorensen, J. Pet Loss and Human Emotion; Taylor & Francis: New York, NY, USA, 2007. [Google Scholar]
- Heath, S.E.; Voeks, S.K.; Glickman, L.T. A study of pet rescue in two disasters. Int. J. Mass Emerg. Disasters 2000, 18, 361–381. [Google Scholar]
- Travis, H.J. Children and the Human-Animal Bond: Minimizing Pet Loss During Disasters. In Teaching Compassion: Humane Education in Early Childhood; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2014; Volume 8, pp. 133–145. [Google Scholar]
- Zottarelli, L.K. Broken Bond: An Exploration of Human Factors Associated with Companion Animal Loss During Hurricane Katrina. Sociol. Forum 2010, 25, 110–122. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sharkin, B.S.; Knox, D. Pet loss: Issues and implications for the psychologist. Prof. Psychol. Res. Pract. 2003, 34, 414–421. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chur-Hansen, A. Grief and bereavement issues and the loss of a companion animal: People living with a companion animal, owners of livestock, and animal support workers. Clin. Psychol. 2010, 14, 14–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Organizing Pet-Friendly Evacuation Shelters: Best Practices for Florida—Training Guide; University of Florida: Gainesville, FL, USA, 2008.
- World Health Organization. Definition of an older or elderly person. 30 November 2013. Available online: http://www.who.int/healthinfo/survey/ageingdefnolder/en/index.html (accessed one 22 April 2014).
- Fernandez, L.S.; Byard, D.; Lin, C.-C.; Benson, S.; Barbera, J.A. Frail Elderly as Disaster Victims: Emergency Management Strategies. Prehospital Disaster Med. 2002, 17, 67–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Aldrich, N.; Benson, W. Disaster preparedness and the chronic disease needs of vulnerable older adults. Prev. Chron. Dis. 2008, 5. Available online: http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2008/jan/07_0135.htm (accessed one 22 April 2014).
- Paek, H.-J.; Hilyard, K.; Freimuth, V.; Barge, J.K.; Mindlin, M. Theory-based approaches to understanding public emergency preparedness: Implications for effective health and risk communication. J. Health Commun. 2010, 15, 428–444. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Loke, A.Y.; Lai, C.K.Y.; Fung, O.W.M. At-home disaster preparedness of elderly people in Hong Kong. Geriat. Gerontol. Int. 2012, 12, 524–531. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Morrow, B.H. Social vulnerabilities and Hurricane Katrina: An unnatural disaster in New Orleans. Marine Technol. Soc. J. 2007, 40, 16–26. [Google Scholar]
- Older Persons in Emergencies: An Active Ageing Perspective; World Health Organization: Geneva, Switerland, 2008.
- Australian Bureau of Statistics. 4102.0—Australian Social Trends, 1995. Available online: http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/[email protected]/2f762f95845417aeca25706c00834efa/5EF8016F420622A3CA2570EC00753524 (accessed one 22 April 2014).
- Chur-Hansen, A.; Winefield, H.; Beckwith, M. Reasons given by elderly men and women for not owning a pet, and the implications for clinical practice and research. J. Health Psychol. 2008, 13, 988–995. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McNicholas, J.; Gilbey, A.; Rennie, A.; Ahmedzai, S.; Dono, J.-A.; Ormerod, E. Pet ownership and human health: A brief review of evidence and issues. BMJ 2005, 331, 1252–1254. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Enders-Slegers, M. The meaning of companion animals: Qualitative analysis of the life histories of elderly cat and dog owners. In Companions Animals and Us: Exploring the Relationships Between People and Pets; Podberscek, A., Paul, E., Serpell, J., Eds.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK, 2000; pp. 237–256. [Google Scholar]
- Winefield, H.R.; Black, A.; Chur-Hansen, A. Health effects of ownership of and attachment to companion animals in an older population. Int. J. Behav. Med. 2008, 15, 303–310. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kurrle, S.E.; Day, R.; Cameron, I.D. The perils of pet ownership: A new fall-injury risk factor. BMJ 2004, 181, 682–683. [Google Scholar]
- Pluijm, S.M.; Smit, J.H.; Tromp, E.A.; Stel, V.S.; Deeg, D.J.; Bouter, L.M.; Lips, P. A risk profile for identifying community-dwelling elderly with a high risk of recurrent falls: Results of a 3-year prospective study. Osteoporosis Int. 2006, 17, 417–425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities 2006. Available online: http://www2.ohchr.org/english/law/disabilities-convention.htm (accessed on 15 December 2013).
- Kailes, J. Disaster services and “special needs”: Term of art or meaningless term? Nobody Left Behind 2005. Available online: http://www2.ku.edu/~rrtcpbs/findings/pdfs/SpecialsNeeds.pdf (accessed on 15 November 2013).
- Disability, Australia 2009; Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia, 2011.
- White, G.; Fox, M.; Rooney, C.; Cahill, A. Assessing the impact of Hurricane Katrina on persons with disabilities. 2007. Available online: http://www.rtcil.org/products/NIDRR_ExecutiveSummaryKatrinaReport.pdf (accessed on 22 April 2014).
- Uscher-Pines, L.; Hausman, A.; Powell, S.; DeMara, P.; Heake, G.; Hagen, M. Disaster preparedness of households with special needs in southeastern Pennsylvania. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2009, 37, 227–230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bethel, J.; Foreman, A.; Burke, S. Disaster preparedness among medically vulnerable populations. Am. J. Prev. Med. 2011, 40, 139–143. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hogaboom, N.; Oyster, M.; Riggins, M.; Boninger, M. Evacuation preparedness in full-time wheelchair users with spinal cord injury. J. Spinal Cord Med. 2013, 36, 290–295. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kendall-Tackett, K.; Mona, L. The impact on 9/11 of people with disabilities: Committee on Disability Issues in Psychology. In Proceedings of the American Psychological Association Conference, Washington, DC, USA, 18–21 August 2005.
- Rooney, C.; White, G. Narrative analysis of a disaster preparedness and emergency response survey from persons with mobility impairments. J. Disabil. Policy Stud. 2007, 17, 206–215. [Google Scholar]
- Sullivan, H.; Hakkinen, M.; Kawamura, H. Preparedness and warning systems for populations with special needs: Ensuring everyone gets the message (and knows what to do). In Proceedings of the International Conference on Energy, Environment and Disasters, Charlotte, NC, USA, 24–30 July 2005.
- Njelesani, J.; Cleaver, S.; Tataryn, M.; Nixon, S. Using a Human Rights-Based Approach to Disability in Disaster Management Initiatives. 2012. Available online: http://www.intechopen.com/books/natural-disasters/using-a-human-rights-based-approach-to-disability-in-disaster-manatement-initiatives (accessed on 10 November 2013).
- Takahashi, A.; Watanabe, K.; Oshima, M.; Shimada, H.; Ozawa, A. The effect of the disaster cause by the great Hanshin earthquake on people with intellectual disability. J. Intell. Disabil. Res. 1997, 41, 193–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lane, D.; Nicholas, J.; Collis, G. Dogs for the disabled: Benefits for the recipients and welfare of the dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1998, 5, 49–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hart, L.; Zasloff, R.; Benfatto, A. The socialising role of hearing dogs. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 1996, 47, 7–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Whitmarsh, L. The benefits of guide dog ownership. Vis. Impair. Res. 2005, 7, 27–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Guest, C.; Collis, G.; McNicholas, J. Hearing dogs: A longitudinal study of social and psychological effects on deaf and hard-of-hearing recipients. J. Deaf Stud. Deaf Educ. 2005, 11, 252–261. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kwong, M.; Bartholomew, K. “Not just a dog”: An attachment perspective on relationships with assistance dogs. Attach. Human Dev. 2011, 13, 421–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Census of Population and Housing: Estimating Homelessness 2011; Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia, 2012.
- Every, D.; Thompson, K. Disaster Resilience: Can the Homeless Afford It? Aust. J. Emerg. Manag. 2014, in press. [Google Scholar]
- Wisner, B. Marginality and vulnerability: Why the homeless of Tokyo don't ‘count’ in disaster preparations. Appl. Geogr. 1998, 18, 25–33. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Edgington, S. Disaster Planning for People Experiencing Homelessness; National Health Care for the Homeless Council, Inc.: Nashville, TN, USA, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Uitto, J.I. The geography of disaster vulnerability in megacities: A theoretical framework. Appl. Geogr. 1998, 18, 7–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Greene, M. Housing Recovery and Reconstruction: Lessons from Recent Urban Earthquakes; Bay Area Regional Earthquake Preparedness Project; Governor's Office of Emergency Services: Oakland, CA, USA, 1992.
- Pets of the Homeless 2012. Available online: http://www.petsofthehomeless.org/ (accessed on 5 December 2013).
- Brewbaker, E. The experience of homelessness and the human-animal bond: A qualitative study. M.Sc. Thesis, Smith College of Social Work, Massachusetts, MA, USA, 2012. [Google Scholar]
- Irvine, L. My Dog Always Eats First: Homeless People and Their Aniamls; Lynne Rienner Publishers: Boulder, CO, USA, 2013. [Google Scholar]
- Irvine, L. Animals as Lifechangers and Lifesavers: Pets in the Redemption Narratives of Homeless People. J. Contemp. Ethnogr. 2013, 42, 3–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Slatter, J.; Lloyd, C.; King, R. Homelessness and companion animals: More than just a pet? Brit. J. Occup. Ther. 2012, 75, 377–383. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rew, L. Friends and pets as companions: Strategies for coping with loneliness among homeless youth. J. Child Adolescent Psychiat. Nurs. 2000, 13, 125–132. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Taylor, H.; Williams, P.; Gray, D. Homelessness and dog ownership: An investigation into animal empathy, attachment, crime, drug use, health and public opinon. Anthrozoos 2004, 17, 353–368. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kidd, A.; Kidd, R. Benefits and liabilities of pets for the homeless. Psychol. Rep. 1994, 74, 715–722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, S. Homeless—Non English Speaking Background Women and Children Who are Victims of Domestic Violence: Discussion Paper; Immigrant Women’s Speakout Association: Sydney, Australia, 2008. [Google Scholar]
- Keys, D. Children and Homelessness: Literature Review; Salvation Army, Melbourne City Mission, Research and Social Policy Unit: Melbourne, Australia, 2009. [Google Scholar]
- Munro, P. Man’s Best Friend. Sydney Morning Herald 2013. [Google Scholar]
- What is Mental Illness? Department of Health and Ageing: Canberra, Australia, 2012.
- National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing 2007; Australian Bureau of Statistics: Canberra, Australia, 2008.
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Building Bridges: Mental Health Consumers and Representatives of the Disaster Response Community in Dialogue; HHS Publication No. 4250; Center for Mental Health Services: Rockville, MD, USA, 2007.
- Speier, T. Introduction to crisis counselling programs and services to persons with serious and persistent mental illness. Responding to the Needs of People with Serious and Persistent Mental Illness in Times of Disaster. Available online: http://cretscmhd.psych.ucla.edu/nola/Video/MHR/Governmentreports/1-Responding_to_Needs_Serious_Mental_Illness.pdf (accessed on 1 December 2013).
- Fornili, K. Disasters and substance use disorders: Response and responsibility. J. Addict. Nurs. 2006, 17, 71–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zimolag, U.; Krupa, T. Pet ownership as a meaningful community occupation for people with a serious mental illness. Am. J. Occup. Ther. 2009, 63, 126–137. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wisdom, J.; Saedi, G.; Green, C. Another breed of “service animals”: STARS study findings about pet ownership and recovery from serious mental illness. Am. J. Orthopsychiat. 2009, 79, 430–436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Akiyama, H.; Holtzman, J.; Britz, W. Pet ownership and health status during bereavement. J. Death Dying 1986, 17, 187–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, B.B. The ‘pet effect’—Health related aspects of companion animal ownership. Austr. Family Phys. 2012, 41, 439–442. [Google Scholar]
- Barker, S.; Dawson, K. The Effects of Animal-Assisted Therapy on Anxiety Ratings of Hospitalized Psychiatric Patients. Psychiat. Serv. 1998, 49, 797–801. [Google Scholar]
- Nagengast, S.; Baun, M.; Megel, M.; Leibowitz, J. The effects of the presence of a companion animal on physiological arousal and behavioral distress in children during a physical examination. J. Pediat Nurs. 1997, 12, 323–330. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peacock, J.; Chur-Hansen, A.; Winefield, H. Mental Health Implications of Human Attachment to Companion Animals. J. Clin. Psychol. 2012, 68, 292–303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Glasgow, K. The Sudanese Refugees and Fire Hazard Study; Bushfire CRC: East Melbourne, Australia, 2006. [Google Scholar]
- Lollar, K. The Liminal Experience: Loss of Extended Self After the Fire. Qual. Inq. 2010, 16, 262–270. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hunt, M.G.; Bogue, K.; Rohrbaugh, N. Pet Ownership and Evacuation Prior to Hurricane Irene. Animals 2012, 2, 529–539. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
© 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).
Thompson, K.; Every, D.; Rainbird, S.; Cornell, V.; Smith, B.; Trigg, J. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks. Animals 2014, 4, 214-240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani4020214
Thompson K, Every D, Rainbird S, Cornell V, Smith B, Trigg J. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks. Animals. 2014; 4(2):214-240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani4020214Chicago/Turabian Style
Thompson, Kirrilly, Danielle Every, Sophia Rainbird, Victoria Cornell, Bradley Smith, and Joshua Trigg. 2014. "No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks" Animals 4, no. 2: 214-240. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani4020214