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Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake
Division of Pathway Medicine, School of Biomedical Sciences, College of Medicine and Veterinary Medicine, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH16 4SB, UK
Latin America Branch, Veterinarians Without Borders (Veterinarios Sin Fronteras) Canada, Pasaje Los Arrayanes 333, Valdivia, Chile
Instituto de Medicina Preventiva Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Casilla 567, Valdivia, Chile
The Roslin Institute and Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 July 2013; in revised form: 15 August 2013 / Accepted: 15 August 2013 / Published: 27 August 2013
Simple Summary: A disease outbreak in domestic dogs was reported by a coastal Chilean community following the February 2010 earthquake and tsunami. Using clinical exams and diagnostic testing, canine distemper virus was confirmed. Most dogs seen had never been vaccinated, and the majority of those with positive results were recorded in dogs less than two years of age. There were no facilities to contain or treat dogs locally, and no plan to shelter free-roaming dogs. This observational study demonstrates the great need for disaster preparedness planning in developing countries that includes companion animals.
Abstract: Following the earthquake and tsunami disaster in Chile in February 2010, residents of Dichato reported high morbidity and mortality in dogs, descriptions of which resembled canine distemper virus (CDV). To assess the situation, free vaccine clinics were offered in April and May. Owner information, dog history and signalment were gathered; dogs received physical examinations and vaccines protecting against CDV, and other common canine pathogens. Blood was collected to screen for IgM antibodies to CDV. In total, 208 dogs received physical exams and vaccines were given to 177. IgM antibody titres to CDV were obtained for 104 dogs. Fifty-four dogs (51.9%) tested positive for CDV at the cut off titre of >1:50, but a total of 91.4% of dogs had a detectable titre >1:10. Most of the positive test results were in dogs less than 2 years of age; 33.5% had been previously vaccinated against CDV, and owners of 84 dogs (42.2%) reported clinical signs characteristic of CDV in their dogs following the disaster. The presence of endemic diseases in dog populations together with poor pre-disaster free-roaming dog management results in a potential for widespread negative effects following disasters. Creation of preparedness plans that include animal welfare, disease prevention and mitigation should be developed.
Keywords: free-roaming dogs; Chile; canine distemper virus; disaster preparedness; natural disaster; companion animals; disaster response
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Garde, E.; Pérez, G.; Acosta-Jamett, G.; Bronsvoort, B.M. Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake. Animals 2013, 3, 843-854.
Garde E, Pérez G, Acosta-Jamett G, Bronsvoort BM. Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake. Animals. 2013; 3(3):843-854.
Garde, Elena; Pérez, Guillermo; Acosta-Jamett, Gerardo; Bronsvoort, Barend M. 2013. "Characteristics of a Canine Distemper Virus Outbreak in Dichato, Chile Following the February 2010 Earthquake." Animals 3, no. 3: 843-854.