Nature of Pre-Earthquake Phenomena and their Effects on Living Organisms
GeoCosmo Science Group, SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA 94043, USA
Department of Physics, San Jose State University, San Jose, CA 95192, USA
Earth Sciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
Space Biosciences Division, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 April 2013 / Revised: 28 May 2013 / Accepted: 28 May 2013 / Published: 6 June 2013
Earthquakes are invariably preceded by a period when stresses increase deep in the Earth. Animals appear to be able to sense impending seismic events. During build-up of stress, electronic charge carriers are activated deep below, called positive holes. Positive holes have unusual properties: they can travel fast and far into and through the surrounding rocks. As they flow, they generate ultralow frequency electromagnetic waves. When they arrive at the Earth surface, they can ionize the air. When they flow into water, they oxidize it to hydrogen peroxides. All these physical and chemical processes can have noticeable effects on animals.