Behaviours Expressed by Rodeo Calves during Different Phases of Roping
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Data Collection
2.2. Ethogram and Scoring Sheet
2.3. Data Analysis
3.1. Statistical Analysis
5. Limitations and Future Directions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Chase||The calf is chased out of the holding chute into the arena by a rider on horseback|
|Lasso||The rider throws a rope lasso around the calf’s neck as the calf and rider are running and then pulls the calf to a halt|
|Catch and Restraint||The rider dismounts, secures the calf with the rope that the calf was lassoed with and throws the calf to the ground|
|Leg Tie||The rider ties a knot with another rope around three of the calf’s legs to secure the calf so that it is lying in a lateral position|
|Release||The calf is untied and allowed to walk or trot freely towards the exit gate of the arena|
|Phase||Physical Impacts||Injury Risk|
|Chase||No physical contact but calf is pursued at speed by horse and rider||If the calf stumbles or falls—bruising, fractures|
|Lasso||Rope pulled tight around neck|
Calf running fast in one direction stops abruptly
Calf pulled in opposite direction
|Compression and damage to trachea, glands in the neck area including the thymus, thyroid, parotid salivary glands|
Deceleration injury where the brain contacts the inside of the skull causing concussion
|Catch and Restraint||Held tightly, skin pulled, forced/dropped from about 1 m in height causing impact with ground||Bruising of skin as it is pulled and bruising/fractures to chest and ribs on contact with the ground which may temporarily “wind” the calf|
|Leg Tie||Whilst on the ground, three legs are forced together and tied tightly with rope||Bruising to muscles on legs and periosteum of bones in the lower legs|
|Release||No physical contact with competitor||Bruising, fractures if the calf stumbles or falls|
|Ears Axial||Ears are perpendicular to the side of the head|
|Ears Back/down||Ears are pointed towards the back of the animal|
|Eye White||Increase in the amount of sclera of the eye that is visible|
|Vocalisation||Calf emits noise from mouth|
|Leg Movement—Fast||Calf is running at full speed|
|Leg Movement—Slow||Calf is walking or slowly trotting|
|Tail Relaxed||Tail is free to move and swish|
|Tail Rigid||Calf is holding tail stiffly between the rear legs|
|Tail Swish||Calf moves the tail rapidly from side to side|
|Evasive Behaviour||Calf is resisting competitor (for example, pulling away at the rope, avoiding being caught or attempting to stand during Leg Tie)|
|Phase||Pearson Chi-Square||p Value||Likelihood Ratio||df|
|Catch and Restraint||41.408||<0.001||49.387||9|
|95% CI for Exp (B)|
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Dixon, S.; Evans, D.; Vindevoghel, T.; Ward, M.P.; Quain, A. Behaviours Expressed by Rodeo Calves during Different Phases of Roping. Animals 2023, 13, 343. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030343
Dixon S, Evans D, Vindevoghel T, Ward MP, Quain A. Behaviours Expressed by Rodeo Calves during Different Phases of Roping. Animals. 2023; 13(3):343. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030343Chicago/Turabian Style
Dixon, Sylvia, Di Evans, Thinza Vindevoghel, Michael P. Ward, and Anne Quain. 2023. "Behaviours Expressed by Rodeo Calves during Different Phases of Roping" Animals 13, no. 3: 343. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani13030343