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Article

Efficacy of Various Feed Additives on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Bone Quality, Blood Constituents, and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus Diet

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Department of Nutrition and Clinical Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Menoufia, Shibin El-Kom 32514, Egypt
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Department of Cytology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Sadat City 32897, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry and Chemistry of Nutrition, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sadat City, Sadat City 32897, Egypt
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Department of Biology, College of Science, University of Jeddah, Jeddah 21493, Saudi Arabia
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Biological Sciences Department, College of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Rabigh 21911, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Poultry and Fish Production, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Menoufia, Shibin El-Kom 32514, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Anna Czech and Ewa Tomaszewska
Animals 2022, 12(14), 1742; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141742
Received: 2 June 2022 / Revised: 30 June 2022 / Accepted: 4 July 2022 / Published: 7 July 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Animal Health: A Biochemical Approach)
Skeletal disorders and related-welfare complications are an ongoing concern for rapid-growing broiler chickens. Phosphorus is a vital nutrient in the poultry diet, and it is related to bone growth and skeleton rigidity and strength. Poultry utilize approximately 60% of the dietary P, and the residual is excreted and may enter the environment leading to environmental pollution. Consequently, a better understanding of intestinal phosphorus absorption will enable augmenting phosphorus utilization and reducing phosphorus excretion and feed costs in the poultry industry. Therefore, the present trial was designed to assess various supplements on performance, nutrient digestibility, bone physical parameters and mineralization, blood constituents, bone and gut histomorphology, and duodenal phosphorus transporter genes of broiler chickens fed a decreased non-phytate phosphorus. The dietary addition of phytase or probiotic to a low phosphorus diet was beneficial with respect to growth performance and carcass traits. Regarding nutrient digestibility, tibia quality parameters, and gut and bone histomorphology, all three dietary supplements (probiotics, yeast, and fumaric acid) were advantageous, and these improvements were of comparable magnitude to those of the positive control and phytase groups. The up-regulation of duodenal NaP-IIb and PiT-2 genes in the supplemented groups may suggest greater phosphorus availability. It can be concluded that these supplements were beneficial in mitigating the negative effects of phosphorus reduction on the growth performance, health, and bone quality of broilers.
The present trial was designed to assess the effect of phytase, multi-strain probiotic, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and fumaric acid on performance, nutrient digestibility, bone physical parameters and mineralization, blood constituents, bone and gut histomorphology, and duodenal phosphorus transporter genes of broiler chickens fed a decreased non-phytate phosphorus (nPP) diet for 5 weeks. A total of 480 broiler chickens were allotted to six dietary groups and eight replicates each: (1) positive control diet with recommended levels of nPP (PC; 0.48, 0.44, and 0.41% in the three feeding phases); (2) negative control diet with a decreased dietary nPP (NC; 0.28, 0.24, and 0.21% in the three feeding phases); (3) NC + 600 FTU/kg phytase (PHY); (4) NC + 0.05% multi-strain probiotic (PRO); (5) NC + 0.2% Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC); and (6) NC + 0.2% fumaric acid. Growth performance data were recorded weekly, and blood sampling was performed at days 21 and 35 of age. Bone quality traits, gut and tibia histology, nutrient digestibility, and intestinal gene expression analyses were conducted at the end of the trial (35 days of age). Final body weight and total gain at day 35 of age of the broiler chickens fed with the PHY, PRO, and SC diets were greater (p < 0.01) than in NC, where broilers fed with the PRO and PHY diets had higher values and were similar to that of PC. There was a non-significant variation in the cumulative feed intake among the treatment groups. The PHY and PRO groups had better FCR than the PC group (p < 0.05), and FA and SC had an FCR equivalent to that of PC. The PHY and PRO broilers had greater dressing % than the NC group (p < 0.05) and even better than PC. The PHY, PRO, SC, and FA broilers had higher relative weights of spleen and bursa of Fabricius (p < 0.01) than NC. In comparison to NC, the PHY, PRO, and SC groups improved (p < 0.05) CP, CF, Ca, and P digestibility. Greater tibia breaking strength of the low nPP-supplemented groups was shown to be associated with higher tibia ash, Ca, and P concentrations (p < 0.01) and increased (p < 0.001) tibia cortical area thickness. At days 21 and 35 of age, the dietary supplements to low nPP diets reduced (p < 0.05) serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, triiodothyronine, thyroxine, glucose, and alkaline phosphatase levels, while serum Ca and P concentrations were improved (p < 0.05) compared to NC. All supplements led to enhancement (p < 0.01) in villi height and width and villi absorptive surface area when compared with NC and were even comparable to that of PC. The mRNA expression of NaP-IIb was up-regulated (p < 0.001) in the duodenum of PRO and FA broilers at day 35 of age compared with NC, and their expression levels were similar to that of PC, indicating greater P availability. It is concluded that dietary supplementation of PHY, PRO, SC, and FA to a low nPP diet was advantageous and mitigated the negative impacts of P reduction on the growth performance, health, nutrient digestibility, and bone quality of broilers. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphorus; probiotic; phytase; organic acid; bone mineralization; carcass traits; hormone profile; bone and gut histology; phosphorus transporter genes phosphorus; probiotic; phytase; organic acid; bone mineralization; carcass traits; hormone profile; bone and gut histology; phosphorus transporter genes
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MDPI and ACS Style

Selim, S.; Abdel-Megeid, N.S.; Khalifa, H.K.; Fakiha, K.G.; Majrashi, K.A.; Hussein, E. Efficacy of Various Feed Additives on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Bone Quality, Blood Constituents, and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus Diet. Animals 2022, 12, 1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141742

AMA Style

Selim S, Abdel-Megeid NS, Khalifa HK, Fakiha KG, Majrashi KA, Hussein E. Efficacy of Various Feed Additives on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Bone Quality, Blood Constituents, and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus Diet. Animals. 2022; 12(14):1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141742

Chicago/Turabian Style

Selim, Shaimaa, Nazema S. Abdel-Megeid, Hanem K. Khalifa, Khloud G. Fakiha, Kamlah A. Majrashi, and Eman Hussein. 2022. "Efficacy of Various Feed Additives on Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Bone Quality, Blood Constituents, and Phosphorus Absorption and Utilization of Broiler Chickens Fed Low Phosphorus Diet" Animals 12, no. 14: 1742. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12141742

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