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Relationship between the Composition of Lipids in Forages and the Concentration of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Cow’s Milk: A Review
 
 
Review

Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression

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Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Av. Universidad km 1, Tulancingo de Bravo 43600, Mexico
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Departamento de Nutrición Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Instituto Literario 100 Ote, Toluca 50000, Mexico
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Instituto de Ciencias Agropecuarias y Rurales, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Instituto Literario No. 100 Ote, Toluca 50000, Mexico
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Department of Animal Sciences, School of Agriculture, Policy and Development, University of Reading, Reading RG6 6EU, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Natalello
Animals 2022, 12(13), 1642; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131642
Received: 2 May 2022 / Revised: 23 June 2022 / Accepted: 23 June 2022 / Published: 26 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Feeding Strategies to Improve Milk and Meat Quality)
Milk is the most consumed dairy product in the world and for humans is one of the major sources of beneficial biocomponents. Lipids from oilseeds can be transferred to milk from cows or converted to other biomolecules with nutraceutical effects, resulting in healthier milk. However, there is a great uncertainty with regard to the effect of some variables related to the animal, the seed, the level of inclusion and the characteristics of the diet. The objective of this review was to show the effect of the inclusion of oilseeds in the diet of dairy cows on milk yield, milk components and the fatty acid profile in milk. A systematized search was carried out of published articles with high scientific rigor where the feeding strategy in dairy cows was the inclusion of oilseeds in the diet. Milk from oilseed-fed cows contained a higher amount of unsaturated 18-carbon fatty acids, including omega-3 series, rumenic and vaccenic fatty acids. Overall, supplementation with oilseeds in the cow’s diets increases the concentration of biomolecules in milk with potential positive effects on human health.
Oilseed supplementation is a strategy to improve milk production and milk composition in dairy cows; however, the response to this approach is inconsistent. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oilseed supplementation on milk production and milk composition in dairy cows via a meta-analysis and meta-regression. A comprehensive and structured search was performed using the following electronic databases: Google Scholar, Primo-UAEH and PubMed. The response variables were: milk yield (MY), atherogenic index (AI), Σ omega-3 PUFA, Σ omega-6 PUFA, fat, protein, lactose, linoleic acid (LA), linolenic acid (LNA), oleic acid (OA), vaccenic acid (VA), conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) contents. The explanatory variables were breed, lactation stage (first, second, and third), oilseed type (linseed, soybean, rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower), way (whole, extruded, ground, and roasted), dietary inclusion level, difference of the LA, LNA, OA, forage and NDF of supplemented and control rations, washout period and experimental design. A meta-analysis was performed with the “meta” package of the statistical program R. A meta-regression analysis was applied to explore the sources of heretogeneity. The inclusion of oilseeds in dairy cow rations had a positive effect on CLA (+0.27 g 100 g−1 fatty acids (FA); p < 0.0001), VA (+1.03 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), OA (+3.44 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), LNA (+0.28 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001) and UFA (+8.32 g 100 g−1 FA; p < 0.0001), and negative effects on AI (−1.01; p < 0.0001), SFA (−6.51; p < 0.0001), fat milk (−0.11%; p < 0.001) and protein milk (−0.04%; p < 0.007). Fat content was affected by animal breed, lactation stage, type and processing of oilseed and dietary NDF and LA contents. CLA, LA, OA and UFA, desirable FA milk components, were affected by type, processing, and the intake of oilseed; additionally, the concentrations of CLA and VA are affected by washout and design. Oilseed supplementation in dairy cow rations has a positive effect on desirable milk components for human consumption. However, animal response to oilseed supplementation depends on explanatory variables related to experimental design, animal characteristics and the type of oilseed. View Full-Text
Keywords: CLA; atherogenic index; milk fatty acid; experimental design; roasted; washout CLA; atherogenic index; milk fatty acid; experimental design; roasted; washout
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MDPI and ACS Style

Plata-Pérez, G.; Angeles-Hernandez, J.C.; Morales-Almaráz, E.; Del Razo-Rodríguez, O.E.; López-González, F.; Peláez-Acero, A.; Campos-Montiel, R.G.; Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E.; Vieyra-Alberto, R. Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Animals 2022, 12, 1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131642

AMA Style

Plata-Pérez G, Angeles-Hernandez JC, Morales-Almaráz E, Del Razo-Rodríguez OE, López-González F, Peláez-Acero A, Campos-Montiel RG, Vargas-Bello-Pérez E, Vieyra-Alberto R. Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression. Animals. 2022; 12(13):1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131642

Chicago/Turabian Style

Plata-Pérez, Genaro, Juan C. Angeles-Hernandez, Ernesto Morales-Almaráz, Oscar E. Del Razo-Rodríguez, Felipe López-González, Armando Peláez-Acero, Rafael G. Campos-Montiel, Einar Vargas-Bello-Pérez, and Rodolfo Vieyra-Alberto. 2022. "Oilseed Supplementation Improves Milk Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Cow Milk: A Meta-Analysis and Meta-Regression" Animals 12, no. 13: 1642. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12131642

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