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Maternal Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Male Progeny

Department of Animal and Range Sciences, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59718, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Rebecca R. Cockrum
Animals 2021, 11(8), 2216;
Received: 30 June 2021 / Revised: 20 July 2021 / Accepted: 22 July 2021 / Published: 27 July 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Maternal Influence on Animal Health and Performance)
The objective of the following review is to describe available literature on the interaction between maternal nutrition and developmental programming in male offspring. The majority of current research focuses on female offspring or fails to take offspring sex into account, though sexual dimorphisms in response to maternal diet are well-recognized. This leaves a large gap in the understanding of male developmental programming. This review will specifically discuss the impacts of maternal dietary energy and protein on bull and ram growth, development, and reproductive capacity in later life.
Poor maternal nutrition can cause several maladaptive phenotypes in exposed offspring. While non-sex-specific and female-specific adaptations are well-documented, male-specific outcomes are still poorly understood. Of particular interest are the outcomes in bulls and rams, as developmental programming directly impacts long-term productivity of the animal as well as human food security. The following review discusses the impact of poor maternal dietary energy and protein on bull and ram developmental programming as it relates to growth, development, and reproductive capacity. The review also highlights the importance of the timing of maternal dietary insult, as early-, mid-, and late-gestational insults can all have varying effects on offspring. View Full-Text
Keywords: bull; developmental programming; growth; ram; reproduction bull; developmental programming; growth; ram; reproduction
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MDPI and ACS Style

McCoski, S.; Bradbery, A.; Marques, R.d.S.; Posbergh, C.; Sanford, C. Maternal Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Male Progeny. Animals 2021, 11, 2216.

AMA Style

McCoski S, Bradbery A, Marques RdS, Posbergh C, Sanford C. Maternal Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Male Progeny. Animals. 2021; 11(8):2216.

Chicago/Turabian Style

McCoski, Sarah, Amanda Bradbery, Rodrigo d.S. Marques, Christian Posbergh, and Carla Sanford. 2021. "Maternal Nutrition and Developmental Programming of Male Progeny" Animals 11, no. 8: 2216.

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