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Article

Modulation of Cathepsin S (CTSS) Regulates the Secretion of Progesterone and Estradiol, Proliferation, and Apoptosis of Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Rabbits

1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450046, China
2
Yangguang Rabbit Technology Co., Ltd., Jiyuan 454650, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Guohua Song and Yixuan Jiang contributed equally to this paper.
Academic Editors: Rosa María García-García and Maria Arias Alvarez
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1770; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061770
Received: 28 May 2021 / Revised: 5 June 2021 / Accepted: 10 June 2021 / Published: 13 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Challenges and New Strategies on Rabbit Breeding)
In goat and sheep, CTSS is reported to be important for the development and maturation of oocytes by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CTSS in regulating cell apoptosis and hormone secretion in rabbit granulosa cells. Our results suggested that the CTSS gene can promote the proliferation of granulosa cells and reduce its apoptosis in vitro, while overexpression of CTSS promoted the secretion of progesterone and estrogen in rabbit granulosa cells. Therefore, manipulation of CTSS may improve development of oocytes, and thus provide an approach for better manipulation of rabbit reproductive performance.
Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a member of cysteine protease family. Although many studies have demonstrated the vital role of CTSS in many physiological and pathological processes including tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis, the function of CTSS in the development of rabbit granulosa cells (GCS) remains unknown. To address this question, we isolated rabbit GCS and explored the regulatory function of the CTSS gene in cell proliferation and apoptosis. CTSS overexpression significantly promoted the secretion of progesterone (P4) and estrogen (E2) by increasing the expression of STAR and CYP19A1 (p < 0.05). We also found that overexpression of CTSS increased GCS proliferation by up-regulating the expression of proliferation related gene (PCNA) and anti-apoptotic gene (BCL2). Cell apoptosis was markedly decreased by CTSS activation (p < 0.05). In contrast, CTSS knockdown significantly decreased the secretion of P4 and E2 and the proliferation of rabbit GCS, while increasing the apoptosis of rabbit GCS. Taken together, our results highlight the important role of CTSS in regulating hormone secretion, cell proliferation, and apoptosis in rabbit GCS. These results might provide a basis for better understanding the molecular mechanism of rabbit reproduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: CTSS; granulosa cells; proliferation; apoptosis; hormone secretion CTSS; granulosa cells; proliferation; apoptosis; hormone secretion
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MDPI and ACS Style

Song, G.; Jiang, Y.; Wang, Y.; Song, M.; Niu, X.; Xu, H.; Li, M. Modulation of Cathepsin S (CTSS) Regulates the Secretion of Progesterone and Estradiol, Proliferation, and Apoptosis of Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Rabbits. Animals 2021, 11, 1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061770

AMA Style

Song G, Jiang Y, Wang Y, Song M, Niu X, Xu H, Li M. Modulation of Cathepsin S (CTSS) Regulates the Secretion of Progesterone and Estradiol, Proliferation, and Apoptosis of Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Rabbits. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061770

Chicago/Turabian Style

Song, Guohua, Yixuan Jiang, Yaling Wang, Mingkun Song, Xuanmin Niu, Huifen Xu, and Ming Li. 2021. "Modulation of Cathepsin S (CTSS) Regulates the Secretion of Progesterone and Estradiol, Proliferation, and Apoptosis of Ovarian Granulosa Cells in Rabbits" Animals 11, no. 6: 1770. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061770

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