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Review

Use of Pelleted Diets in Commercially Farmed Decapods during Juvenile Stages: A Review

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Higher Institution Centre of Excellence (HICoE), Institute of Tropical Aquaculture and Fisheries, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
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Institute of Tropical Biodiversity and Sustainable Development, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
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Department of Marine Biology, Faculty of Marine Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia
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Faculty of Fisheries and Food Sciences, Universiti Malaysia Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu 21030, Terengganu, Malaysia
5
STU-UMT Joint Shellfish Research Laboratory, Shantou University, Shantou 515063, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ravi Fotedar and Cosmas Nathanailides
Animals 2021, 11(6), 1761; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061761
Received: 5 February 2021 / Revised: 15 April 2021 / Accepted: 3 May 2021 / Published: 12 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Emerging Issues in Aquaculture)
Information on the diet composition, food types, and feeding behavior of decapods is important for developing well-formulated diets in aquaculture, since feed constitutes the largest operational cost in crustacean hatcheries. The use of formulated feed for decapods at a commercial scale is still in the early stages. This is probably because of the unique feeding behavior that decapods possess: being robust, slow feeders and bottom dwellers, their feeding preferences change during the transition from pelagic larvae to benthic juveniles as their digestive systems develop and become more complex. This article presents an overview of recent progress on the nutrition and feed formulation of commercially farmed decapods during the juvenile stages. In this review, we attempt to update the information on the topic from the last 25 years and examine challenges and opportunities in the development of formulated diets, considering diet composition and decapod feeding behavior during the juvenile stages, which is vital for developing a better quality of feed formulation in hatcheries.
The increasing market demand for decapods has led to a considerable interest in cultivating decapod species at a larger scale. Following the development of hatchery technologies, most research has focused on the development of formulated feeds for commercially farmed decapods once they enter the juvenile stages. The use of formulated feed for decapods at a commercial scale is still in the early stages. This is probably because of the unique feeding behavior that decapods possess: being robust, slow feeders and bottom dwellers, their feeding preferences change during the transition from pelagic larvae to benthic juveniles as their digestive systems develop and become more complex. The current practice of decapod aquaculture involves the provision of juveniles with food such as natural diet, live feed, and formulated feed. Knowledge of nutrient requirements enables diets to be better formulated. By manipulating the levels of proteins and lipids, a formulated feed can be expected to lead to optimal growth in decapods. At the same time, the pellet’s physical characteristics are important factors to be considered upon formulating commercially farmed decapod feeds, considering the unique feeding behavior of the decapod. However, most published studies on decapod nutrition lack data on the physical characteristics of the feed types. Thus, it is difficult to establish a standard feed formulation that focuses on the physical pellet properties. Moreover, careful consideration must be given to the feeding behavior of species, as decapods are known as bottom feeders and are robust in terms of handling feed. Information on the pellet forms, diet composition, and unique feeding behaviors in commercially farmed decapods is gathered to suggest potential better formulated diets that can optimize growth and reproduction. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the information that has been published to date and to come up with suggestions on ways to improve the feed formulation in decapods that comply with their feeding behavior and nutrient requirements. Further research is needed to explore the potential of the pelleted feed at the adult stage so the decapod can take full advantage of the nutrients present in the pellets. View Full-Text
Keywords: feed; feeding diets; macro-micronutrients; feeding behavior; pellet–decapod performances feed; feeding diets; macro-micronutrients; feeding behavior; pellet–decapod performances
MDPI and ACS Style

Aaqillah-Amr, M.A.; Hidir, A.; Azra, M.N.; Ahmad-Ideris, A.R.; Abualreesh, M.H.; Noordiyana, M.N.; Ikhwanuddin, M. Use of Pelleted Diets in Commercially Farmed Decapods during Juvenile Stages: A Review. Animals 2021, 11, 1761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061761

AMA Style

Aaqillah-Amr MA, Hidir A, Azra MN, Ahmad-Ideris AR, Abualreesh MH, Noordiyana MN, Ikhwanuddin M. Use of Pelleted Diets in Commercially Farmed Decapods during Juvenile Stages: A Review. Animals. 2021; 11(6):1761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Aaqillah-Amr, Mohd A., Ariffin Hidir, Mohamad N. Azra, Abdul R. Ahmad-Ideris, Muyassar H. Abualreesh, Mat N. Noordiyana, and Mhd Ikhwanuddin. 2021. "Use of Pelleted Diets in Commercially Farmed Decapods during Juvenile Stages: A Review" Animals 11, no. 6: 1761. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11061761

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