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Article

Bovine Intelectin 2 Expression as a Biomarker of Paratuberculosis Disease Progression

1
Center for Animal Biotechnology, Servicio Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario (SERIDA), 33394 Deva, Spain
2
Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de León, 24071 León, Spain
3
Departamento de Sanidad Animal, Instituto de Ganadería de Montaña (CSIC-Universidad de León), Finca Marzanas, Grulleros, 24346 León, Spain
4
Department of Animal Health, NEIKER-Basque Institute for Agricultural Research and Development, Basque Research and Technology Alliance (BRTA), Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Bizkaia, P812, E-48160 Derio, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giulietta Minozzi
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1370; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051370
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 2 May 2021 / Accepted: 6 May 2021 / Published: 12 May 2021
The potential of the bovine intelectin 2 as a biomarker of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection was investigated using quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of ileocecal valve samples of animals with increasing degrees of lesion severity (focal, multifocal and diffuse histological lesions) and control animals without detected lesions. Significant differences were observed in the mean number of intelectin 2 immunolabelled cells between the three histopathological types and the control. Specifically, the mean number of intelectin 2 labelled cells was indicative of disease progression as the focal group had the highest number of intelectin 2 secreting cells followed by the multifocal, diffuse and control groups indicating that intelectin 2 is a good biomarker for the different stages of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection. Quantification of bovine intelectin 2 secreting cells could constitute a good post-mortem tool, complementary to histopathology, to improve detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. Paratuberculosis infections, especially latent forms of infection.
Paratuberculosis (PTB), a chronic granulomatous enteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP), is responsible for important economic losses in the dairy industry. Our previous RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis showed that bovine intelectin 2 (ITLN2) precursor gene was overexpressed in ileocecal valve (ICV) samples of animals with focal (log2 fold-change = 10.6) and diffuse (log2 fold-change = 6.8) PTB-associated lesions compared to animals without lesions. This study analyzes the potential use of ITLN2, a protein that has been described as fundamental in the innate immune response to infections, as a biomarker of MAP infection. The presence of ITLN2 was investigated by quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of ICV samples of 20 Holstein Friesian cows showing focal (n = 5), multifocal (n = 5), diffuse (n = 5) and no histological lesions (n = 5). Significant differences were observed in the mean number of ITLN2 immunostained goblet and Paneth cells between the three histopathological types and the control. The number of immunolabelled cells was higher in the focal histopathological type (116.9 ± 113.9) followed by the multifocal (108.7 ± 140.5), diffuse (76.5 ± 97.8) and control types (41.0 ± 81.3). These results validate ITLN2 as a post-mortem biomarker of disease progression. View Full-Text
Keywords: intelectin 2; biomarker; immunohistochemistry; ileocecal valve; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; paratuberculosis intelectin 2; biomarker; immunohistochemistry; ileocecal valve; Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis; paratuberculosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Blanco Vázquez, C.; Balseiro, A.; Alonso-Hearn, M.; Juste, R.A.; Iglesias, N.; Canive, M.; Casais, R. Bovine Intelectin 2 Expression as a Biomarker of Paratuberculosis Disease Progression. Animals 2021, 11, 1370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051370

AMA Style

Blanco Vázquez C, Balseiro A, Alonso-Hearn M, Juste RA, Iglesias N, Canive M, Casais R. Bovine Intelectin 2 Expression as a Biomarker of Paratuberculosis Disease Progression. Animals. 2021; 11(5):1370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051370

Chicago/Turabian Style

Blanco Vázquez, Cristina, Ana Balseiro, Marta Alonso-Hearn, Ramón A. Juste, Natalia Iglesias, Maria Canive, and Rosa Casais. 2021. "Bovine Intelectin 2 Expression as a Biomarker of Paratuberculosis Disease Progression" Animals 11, no. 5: 1370. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051370

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