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Article

Interactions among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro

1
Animal Nutrition and Welfare Serice, Departament de Ciència Animal i dels Aliments, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
2
TECHNA France Nutrition, BP 10-44220 Couëron, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Luciana Rossi and Carlotta Giromini
Animals 2021, 11(5), 1205; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051205
Received: 20 March 2021 / Revised: 17 April 2021 / Accepted: 19 April 2021 / Published: 22 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant-Based Alternatives to Antimicrobial in Animal Feed)
Despite the high number of products based on essential oils (EO) mixtures as feed additives for dairy cattle on the market, few studies have been specifically designed to explore possible additive, synergistic or antagonistic effects. This study aims to explore additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects of EO mixtures to improve feed efficiency in dairy cattle. A range of EO were screened individually or in combination for their effect on volatile fatty acids and ammonia nitrogen concentration. In general, EO used individually had small effects on rumen fermentation profile. However, when mixed, some EO resulted in synergistic effects while others had antagonistic effects.
Twelve essential oils (EO): Anise star, cassia, geraniol, lemongrass (LEM), limonene, thyme, tea tree, coriander (COR), capsicum, black pepper, turmeric and ginger (GIN), in Experiment 1 at three doses; and different combinations of LEM, COR and GIN oils in Experiment 2, were evaluated in in vitro batch microbial fermentation using ruminal fluid from four dairy cows fed a 50:50 forage: concentrate diet. In experiment 1, LEM tended to increase the propionate proportion and tended to decrease the acetate to propionate ratio. Anise star, COR, and thyme tended to increase butyrate proportion. Capsicum, COR, and thyme decreased ammonia-N concentration. In experiment 2, a synergy was observed between LEM and COR that resulted in an increase in total volatile fatty acids and propionate proportion, and a decrease in the acetate to propionate ratio. However, the addition of high doses of GIN to the mix had an antagonistic effect on the rumen fermentation profile of the LEM + COR mix. Careful selection and combination of these EO may result in useful mixtures with synergistic interactions to modulate rumen microbial fermentation profile. View Full-Text
Keywords: essential oils; mixtures; synergy; rumen microbial fermentation; dairy cow essential oils; mixtures; synergy; rumen microbial fermentation; dairy cow
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    Doi: DOI: 10.17632/9c3xm6ktrb.1
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    Description: Supplementary Tables from paper Temmar et al (2021). Interactions Among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro . Animals, 2021.
MDPI and ACS Style

Temmar, R.; Rodríguez-Prado, M.; Forgeard, G.; Rougier, C.; Calsamiglia, S. Interactions among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro. Animals 2021, 11, 1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051205

AMA Style

Temmar R, Rodríguez-Prado M, Forgeard G, Rougier C, Calsamiglia S. Interactions among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro. Animals. 2021; 11(5):1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051205

Chicago/Turabian Style

Temmar, Rokia, María Rodríguez-Prado, Gwenael Forgeard, Cécile Rougier, and Sergio Calsamiglia. 2021. "Interactions among Natural Active Ingredients to Improve the Efficiency of Rumen Fermentation In Vitro" Animals 11, no. 5: 1205. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11051205

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