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Article

Microalgae Oil as an Effective Alternative Source of EPA and DHA for Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture

1
DSM Nutritional Products, Research Centre for Animal Nutrition & Health, 68128 Village-Neuf, France
2
VRM Srl Naturalleva, 37137 Verona, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariangela Caroprese
Animals 2021, 11(4), 971; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040971
Received: 11 March 2021 / Revised: 25 March 2021 / Accepted: 26 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Nutrition)
Aquaculture must rely on sustainable aquafeeds to attain the future demand for farmed and high-quality seafood. Algae-derived ingredients, particularly oils from microalgae, have recently emerged as an alternative to fish oil and vegetable oils extracted from terrestrial plants. Such microalgae oils are sustainable alternatives, rich in essential fatty acids and free of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). This study assesses the incorporation of microalgae oils in the diet of gilthead seabream, which is a carnivorous species with typically high demand for fish-based ingredients, particularly fishmeal and fish oil. In particular, its effect on feed quality, seabream growth performance, fillet quality, and safety were compared when fish were fed a diet rich in fish oil versus diets formulated with microalgal oils (3.5 or 0.7% incorporation rate). Importantly, fish performance was maintained when fish oil was replaced by microalgae oil, and fish fillet showed noticeably lower levels of contamination and similar sensory quality. Collectively, the findings of this study showed that aquafeeds formulated with microalgae oils fulfil important nutritional requirements of gilthead seabream and result in a high quality product. Ultimately, these findings offer a more resilient means for sustaining the future growth of gilthead seabream aquaculture.
Microalgal oils (AOs) emerged recently as an alternative to fish oil and to nutritionally poorer vegetable oils for fish species. In this trial, two experimental diets containing fish oil (negative control: 2.1%; positive control: 13.8%) and two diets incorporating AO at 3.5 and 0.7% were fed to grow out gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) of 64.5 g initial body weight. After 110 days of experimental feeding, performance (final body weight mean = 147 g) and survival (>99%) were similar across treatments. The highest eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content in positive control (PC) and 3.5 AO feeds (3.11 and 2.18% of diet, respectively) resulted in the highest EPA + DHA deposition in the fillets (18.40 and 12.36 g/100 g fatty acid, respectively), which entirely reflected the dietary fatty acid profile. Feed and fillets from fish fed the AO diets had lower levels of dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Moreover, sensory quality of AO fillets scored equally to the PC fish. Collectively, these findings offer a more resilient means for sustaining the future growth of seabream aquaculture, whilst maintaining the nutritional value of the resulting seafood. The data supports the addition of seabream to the list of aquaculture species where microalgal oil can be used as an ingredient to fulfil their challenging nutritional demands. View Full-Text
Keywords: microalgae; fish oil replacement; sustainability; EPA DHA alternative source microalgae; fish oil replacement; sustainability; EPA DHA alternative source
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santigosa, E.; Brambilla, F.; Milanese, L. Microalgae Oil as an Effective Alternative Source of EPA and DHA for Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture. Animals 2021, 11, 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040971

AMA Style

Santigosa E, Brambilla F, Milanese L. Microalgae Oil as an Effective Alternative Source of EPA and DHA for Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture. Animals. 2021; 11(4):971. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040971

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santigosa, Ester, Fabio Brambilla, and Luca Milanese. 2021. "Microalgae Oil as an Effective Alternative Source of EPA and DHA for Gilthead Seabream (Sparus aurata) Aquaculture" Animals 11, no. 4: 971. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11040971

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