Next Article in Journal
Effect of Fermented Rapeseed Meal on the Gastrointestinal Microbiota and Immune Status of Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Delivery by Emergency or Elective Cesarean Section on Nitric Oxide Metabolites and Cortisol Amniotic Concentrations in at Term Normal Newborn Dogs: Preliminary Results
 
 
Review

Animal Models for In Vivo Lactation Studies: Anatomy, Physiology and Milk Compositions in the Most Used Non-Clinical Species: A Contribution from the ConcePTION Project

1
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, Ozzano dell’Emlia, 40064 Bologna, Italy
2
Global Research and Development, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd., Netanya 42504, Israel
3
Department of Development and Regeneration, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
4
Department of Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, KU Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
5
Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Erasmus MC, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands
6
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, East Hanover, NJ 07936, USA
7
Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
8
Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium
9
Novartis Pharma AG, Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, 4056 Basel, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2021, 11(3), 714; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030714
Received: 3 February 2021 / Revised: 1 March 2021 / Accepted: 2 March 2021 / Published: 5 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Physiology)
Nowadays, the importance of breastfeeding has been very well recognized not only by the scientific world but also by public opinion. Such awareness has nonetheless put a lot of pressure on women under chronic pharmacological medication, or that simply need to alleviate common post-partum health issues, due to the lack of scientific data regarding the potential transfer to the offspring during lactation. In such a scenario, the ConcePTION project aims at creating a trusted ecosystem that can efficiently generate and disseminate reliable evidence-based information regarding the effects of medications used during pregnancy and breastfeeding to women and their healthcare providers. Due to the need for a reliable animal species to obtain scientific data, the present review summarizes the main features contributing to the lactation process in the most commonly used laboratory animal species.
The present review aims to summarize the main features of mammary gland anatomy, and the physiology of lactation and colostrum/milk in the most commonly used animal species for regulatory toxicity. The final goal is the selection of a preferred animal species to be enrolled in studies investigating the potential transfer of drugs and exogenous molecules through milk, within the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI) funded project ConcePTION. Reference data regarding humans were also collected and analyzed in order to highlight critical similarities and differences with the studied species. Additional practical considerations were also taken into account, such as ethical consideration regarding the chosen species which affects the group size, financial implications and technical feasibility of lactation trials (e.g., ease of sampling, volume of sampling, husbandry requirements and scientific recognition). In conclusion, the present analysis of the literature confirms the complexity of the decisional process behind the choice of an animal model for in vivo trials. For some of the evaluated species, data were either poor or missing, highlighting the necessity to generate more physiological background studies for species that are routinely used in laboratory settings. Overall, when taking into consideration ethical factors, feasible group size, milk volume and ease of milk collection, and physiological similarities with humans, minipigs seem to represent the most appropriate choice. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal models; mammary gland; lactation; milk; colostrum; mice; rats; rabbits; dogs; non-human primates; pigs; minipigs; human animal models; mammary gland; lactation; milk; colostrum; mice; rats; rabbits; dogs; non-human primates; pigs; minipigs; human
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ventrella, D.; Ashkenazi, N.; Elmi, A.; Allegaert, K.; Aniballi, C.; DeLise, A.; Devine, P.J.; Smits, A.; Steiner, L.; Forni, M.; Bouisset-Leonard, M.; Bacci, M.L. Animal Models for In Vivo Lactation Studies: Anatomy, Physiology and Milk Compositions in the Most Used Non-Clinical Species: A Contribution from the ConcePTION Project. Animals 2021, 11, 714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030714

AMA Style

Ventrella D, Ashkenazi N, Elmi A, Allegaert K, Aniballi C, DeLise A, Devine PJ, Smits A, Steiner L, Forni M, Bouisset-Leonard M, Bacci ML. Animal Models for In Vivo Lactation Studies: Anatomy, Physiology and Milk Compositions in the Most Used Non-Clinical Species: A Contribution from the ConcePTION Project. Animals. 2021; 11(3):714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030714

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ventrella, Domenico, Nurit Ashkenazi, Alberto Elmi, Karel Allegaert, Camilla Aniballi, Anthony DeLise, Patrick John Devine, Anne Smits, Lilach Steiner, Monica Forni, Michele Bouisset-Leonard, and Maria Laura Bacci. 2021. "Animal Models for In Vivo Lactation Studies: Anatomy, Physiology and Milk Compositions in the Most Used Non-Clinical Species: A Contribution from the ConcePTION Project" Animals 11, no. 3: 714. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11030714

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop