Next Article in Journal
The Autumn Low Milk Yield Syndrome in High Genetic Merit Dairy Cattle: The Possible Role of a Dysregulated Innate Immune Response
Previous Article in Journal
Circulating Non-Esterified Fatty Acids as Biomarkers for Fat Content and Composition in Pigs
Previous Article in Special Issue
Fermentation Characteristics and In Vitro Digestibility of Fibers and Fiber-Rich Byproducts Used for the Feeding of Pigs
Article

Effects of Orange Pulp Conservation Methods (Dehydrated or Ensiled Sun-Dried) on the Nutritional Value for Finishing Pigs and Implications on Potential Gaseous Emissions from Slurry

1
Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Animal, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, 12400 Segorbe, Spain
2
Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología Animal, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
3
Departamento de Producción Agraria, ETSIAAB, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Departamento de Producción y Sanidad Animal, Salud Pública Veterinaria y Ciencia y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad CEU-Cardenal Herrera, 46115 Valencia, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Riccardo Fortina and Sonia Tassone
Animals 2021, 11(2), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020387
Received: 25 November 2020 / Revised: 27 January 2021 / Accepted: 28 January 2021 / Published: 3 February 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Feeds and Byproducts)
Utilization of local by-products in pig nutrition can reduce the environmental impact of feeds and contribute to the sustainable development of the livestock sector. Orange pulp (OP) is the most abundant citrus by-product worldwide, but its seasonal production and perishable nature requires storage and drying procedures that might affect its nutritive value. Conservation process by fuel drying is expensive and can impair feed sustainability. Instead, in the Mediterranean countries, OP is sun-dried in the open-air. This procedure often implies a previous silage (during storage) which occurs naturally, because OP has a high level of sugars available for fermentation. Orange pulp is also rich in soluble fiber, which is highly fermentable at the pig’s caecum and may reduce gas emissions from slurry. In this study, the nutritive value of conventional fuel-dehydrated (DOP) or ensiled-sun dried (ESDOP) was determined for pig diets. Sugars fermentation during ensiling increases fiber level in ESDOP and decreases energy digestibility compared to DOP, but both OP have an appreciable digestible energy content for pigs, around 87 and 94% that of barley, respectively. In addition, they do not differ in the amount of slurry excreted and contribute to reduce potential derived ammonia and methane emissions.
The inclusion of orange pulp (OP) in pig diets may promote the circular economy, but drying procedures might influence its nutritional value and environmental impact. The purpose of this study was to determine the energy value and nutrient digestibility of dehydrated (DOP) and ensiled sun dried (ESDOP) orange pulp. The potential ammonia (NH3) and methane (CH4) emissions derived from slurry were also measured. Digestible energies of 14.2 and 13.2 MJ/kg DM for DOP and ESDOP, respectively, were estimated by difference after a 500 g/kg substitution of a basal diet with OPs. A high fiber digestion efficiency was observed for both OPs. Pigs fed the basal diet showed a higher intake and a greater excretion of urine N than pigs fed with OP, but fecal N excretion did not differ among diets. A higher benzoic and hippuric acid content in urine was observed in OP than in basal diet. Altogether, these findings explained a lower pH in slurry of OP diets and a reduction of potential NH3 emissions. The biochemical CH4 potential also decreased, especially with ESDOP. Overall, both OP are relevant sources of energy for pig diets. Their inclusion in feeds generate favorable changes of slurry characteristics that reduce potential NH3 and CH4 emissions. View Full-Text
Keywords: energy value; potential gas emission; nutrient balance; orange pulp; conservation method energy value; potential gas emission; nutrient balance; orange pulp; conservation method
MDPI and ACS Style

Ferrer, P.; García-Rebollar, P.; Calvet, S.; de Blas, C.; Piquer, O.; Rodríguez, C.A.; Cerisuelo, A. Effects of Orange Pulp Conservation Methods (Dehydrated or Ensiled Sun-Dried) on the Nutritional Value for Finishing Pigs and Implications on Potential Gaseous Emissions from Slurry. Animals 2021, 11, 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020387

AMA Style

Ferrer P, García-Rebollar P, Calvet S, de Blas C, Piquer O, Rodríguez CA, Cerisuelo A. Effects of Orange Pulp Conservation Methods (Dehydrated or Ensiled Sun-Dried) on the Nutritional Value for Finishing Pigs and Implications on Potential Gaseous Emissions from Slurry. Animals. 2021; 11(2):387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020387

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ferrer, Pablo, Paloma García-Rebollar, Salvador Calvet, Carlos de Blas, Olga Piquer, Carlos A. Rodríguez, and Alba Cerisuelo. 2021. "Effects of Orange Pulp Conservation Methods (Dehydrated or Ensiled Sun-Dried) on the Nutritional Value for Finishing Pigs and Implications on Potential Gaseous Emissions from Slurry" Animals 11, no. 2: 387. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani11020387

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop