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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Oral Supplementation of Healthy Pregnant Sows with Sucrosomial Ferric Pyrophosphate on Maternal Iron Status and Hepatic Iron Stores in Newborn Piglets

1
Department of Molecular Biology, Institute of Genetics and Animal Biotechnology, PAS, 05-552 Jastrzębiec, Poland
2
Pig Hybridization Centre, National Research Institute of Animal Production, Pawłowice 64-122, Poland
3
LabSoft Ltd, 02-844 Warsaw, Poland
4
Department of Laboratory Medicine (TLM 830), Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
5
Hepcidin Analysis, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
6
Department of Genetics and Evolutionism, Institute of Zoology and Biomedical Research, Jagiellonian University, 30-387 Kraków, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(7), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10071113
Received: 27 May 2020 / Revised: 22 June 2020 / Accepted: 25 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
In most mammals, including humans, the need for iron increases rapidly in the last period of pregnancy. Therefore, in compliance with World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations, iron supplementation has become a standard procedure even in healthy pregnant women although it carries the risk of iron toxicity and dysregulation of systemic iron homeostasis. Due to physiological and genomic similarities between swine and humans, pigs constitute an useful animal model in nutritional studies during pregnancy. Here, healthy pregnant sows were supplemented with sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate (SFP), a new non-heme iron formulation, to study its effect on their iron metabolism and that of their progeny. In particular, we aimed at verifying whether supplementation of pregnant sows with SFP will increase the level of low hepatic iron stores in newborn piglets. Results of our study show that SFP does not significantly alter neither systemic iron homeostasis in pregnant sows, nor hepatic iron stores in newborn piglets, which can be used during neonatal period for the maintenance of hematological status. We hypothesize that supplemental iron given orally to pregnant sows is poorly transferred across the placenta.
Background: The similarities between swine and humans in physiological and genomic patterns, as well as significant correlation in size and anatomy, make pigs an useful animal model in nutritional studies during pregnancy. In humans and pigs iron needs exponentially increase during the last trimester of pregnancy, mainly due to increased red blood cell mass. Insufficient iron supply during gestation may be responsible for the occurrence of maternal iron deficiency anemia and decreased iron status in neonates. On the other hand, preventive iron supplementation of non-anemic mothers may be of potential risk due to iron toxicity. Several different regimens of iron supplementation have been applied during pregnancy. The majority of oral iron supplementations routinely applied to pregnant sows provide inorganic, non-heme iron compounds, which exhibit low bioavailability and intestinal side effects. The aim of this study was to check, using pig as an animal model, the effect of sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate (SFP), a new non-heme iron formulation on maternal and neonate iron and hematological status, placental transport and pregnancy outcome; Methods: Fifteen non-anemic pregnant sows were recruited to the experiment at day 80 of pregnancy and randomized into the non-supplemented group (control; n = 5) and two groups receiving oral iron supplementation—sows given sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate, 60 mg Fe/day (SFP; n = 5) (SiderAL®, Pisa, Italy) and sows given ferrous sulfate 60 mg Fe/day (Gambit, Kutno, Poland) (FeSO4; n = 5) up to delivery (around day 117). Biological samples were collected from maternal and piglet blood, placenta and piglet tissues. In addition, data on pregnancy outcome were recorded.; Results: Results of our study show that both iron supplements do not alter neither systemic iron homeostasis in pregnant sows nor their hematological status at the end of pregnancy. Moreover, we did not detect any changes of iron content in the milk and colostrum of iron supplemented sows in comparison to controls. Neonatal iron status of piglets from iron supplemented sows was not improved compared with the progeny of control females. No statistically significant differences were found in average piglets weight and number of piglets per litter between animals from experimental groups. The placental expression of iron transporters varied depending on the iron supplement. View Full-Text
Keywords: sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate; iron deficiency anemia; pig; pregnancy; iron supplementation sucrosomial ferric pyrophosphate; iron deficiency anemia; pig; pregnancy; iron supplementation
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Mazgaj, R.; Szudzik, M.; Lipiński, P.; Jończy, A.; Smuda, E.; Kamyczek, M.; Cieślak, B.; Swinkels, D.; Lenartowicz, M.; Starzyński, R.R. Effect of Oral Supplementation of Healthy Pregnant Sows with Sucrosomial Ferric Pyrophosphate on Maternal Iron Status and Hepatic Iron Stores in Newborn Piglets. Animals 2020, 10, 1113.

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