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Impact of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Administered in ovo on the Immune Response against Experimental Antigens in Chicken Broilers

1
Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Department of Immunology, Pathophysiology and Veterinary Preventive Medicine, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
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Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Division of Histology and Embryology, 50-375 Wroclaw, Poland
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UTP University of Science and Technology, Department of Animal Biotechnology and Genetics, 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Institute of Animal Breeding, 51-630 Wrocław, Poland
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Wroclaw University of Technology, Division of Medicinal Chemistry & Microbiology, 50-372 Wroclaw, Poland
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University of Molise, Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Food Sciences, 86100 Campobasso, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(4), 643; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040643
Received: 11 March 2020 / Revised: 3 April 2020 / Accepted: 4 April 2020 / Published: 8 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Poultry)
The immune system of chickens matures in the course of embryonic development. Early in ovo supplementation with bioactive substances leads to the long-term maintenance of a high level of intestine bifidobacteria, reduces the number of detrimental microorganisms in the gut, modulates the central and peripheral lymphatic organ development in broilers, and stimulates gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) development after hatching. In this investigation, we studied whether the early in ovo application (at the 12th day of embryo incubation) of selected bioactives (prebiotics and synbiotics) influences the humoral immune response against experimental antigens, and the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) skin reaction to experimental mitogen. This study demonstrated that the in ovo application of bioactives did not significantly influence the humoral immune response against T-dependent and T-independent model antigens. Prebiotics in chickens immunized with T-dependent antigen (SRBC) protected them from a retarded rise of the IgG concentration. Bioactives reduced the mortality of birds, markedly with inulin (−6.4%), and the DTH reaction to phytohemagglutinin on the 7th and 21st day after hatching.
The effect of the in ovo application of selected prebiotics and synbiotics on the humoral immune response against T-dependent (SRBC) and T-independent (dextran) antigens and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) to phytohemagglutinin was studied. On the 12th day of incubation, 800 eggs (Ross 308) were divided into five groups and injected into the egg air chamber with prebiotic inulin (Pre1), Bi2tos (Pre2), a synbiotic composed of inulin and Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis IBB SL1 (Syn1), a synbiotic composed of Bi2tos and L. lactis subsp. cremoris IBB SC1 (Syn2), and physiological saline (control group; C). The chickens were immunized twice at the 7th and 21st day of life with SRBC and dextran. A DTH test was performed on the 7th, 21st, and 35th day. The application of prebiotics and synbiotics had no significant effect on the humoral immune response. SRBC-immunized in ovo Pre1- and Pre2-treated chickens showed significantly higher serum IgG levels than the control. A significant effect on the DTH reaction was detected on the 7th (Pre1 < C) and 21st (Pre2 > Syn2) day. However; Bi2tos may transiently stimulate the cellular immune response on the 21st day. It may be concluded that the application of inulin in an egg air chamber on the 12th day of incubation may stimulate the secondary immune response. The inulin-treated group exhibited a lower mortality rate than the control group. View Full-Text
Keywords: in ovo; delayed-type hypersensitivity; SRBC; dextran; immunoglobulin in ovo; delayed-type hypersensitivity; SRBC; dextran; immunoglobulin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Stefaniak, T.; Madej, J.P.; Graczyk, S.; Siwek, M.; Łukaszewicz, E.; Kowalczyk, A.; Sieńczyk, M.; Maiorano, G.; Bednarczyk, M. Impact of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Administered in ovo on the Immune Response against Experimental Antigens in Chicken Broilers. Animals 2020, 10, 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040643

AMA Style

Stefaniak T, Madej JP, Graczyk S, Siwek M, Łukaszewicz E, Kowalczyk A, Sieńczyk M, Maiorano G, Bednarczyk M. Impact of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Administered in ovo on the Immune Response against Experimental Antigens in Chicken Broilers. Animals. 2020; 10(4):643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040643

Chicago/Turabian Style

Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Madej, Jan P.; Graczyk, Stanisław; Siwek, Maria; Łukaszewicz, Ewa; Kowalczyk, Artur; Sieńczyk, Marcin; Maiorano, Giuseppe; Bednarczyk, Marek. 2020. "Impact of Prebiotics and Synbiotics Administered in ovo on the Immune Response against Experimental Antigens in Chicken Broilers" Animals 10, no. 4: 643. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10040643

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