This review attempts to reflect the importance of different factors that affect the environmental quality of dairy farms and must, therefore, be taken into account when considering the importance of environmental microbiology as a tool in the improvement of the quality of milk and dairy products. The effect of a factor such as temperature is vital for the dairy farm environment, especially when the temperatures are extreme, because a proper choice of temperature range improves the quality of the air and, thus, animal welfare. Similarly, the appropriate level of relative humidity in the environment should be taken into consideration to avoid the proliferation of microorganisms on the farm. Air quality, well-designed livestock housing, proper hygienic practices on the farm, stocking density, and the materials used in the livestock houses are all important factors in the concentration of microorganisms in the environment, promoting better welfare for the animals. In addition, a ventilation system is required to prevent the pollution of the farm environment. It is demonstrated that proper ventilation reduces the microbial load of the environment of dairy farms, enhancing the quality of the air and, therefore, the wellbeing of the animals. All this information is very useful to establish certain standards on dairy farms to improve the quality of the environment and, thereby, achieve better quality milk and dairy products.
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