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Open AccessReview

Factors Affecting Levels of Airborne Bacteria in Dairy Farms: A Review

1
Instituto Regional de Investigación y Desarrollo Agroalimentario y Forestal de Castilla La Mancha (IRIAF), 13300 CERSYRA de Valdepeñas (Ciudad Real), Spain
2
Departamento de Química Analítica y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales y Bioquímica, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 45071 Toledo, Spain
3
Departamento de Producción Animal, Universidad de Córdoba, 14071 Córdoba, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 526; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030526
Received: 16 January 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 19 March 2020 / Published: 21 March 2020
The environmental quality of farms plays an important role in the food safety of the dairy industry because it may influence the microbial communities in milk. The microorganisms present in the different areas of a farm have an influence on this environmental quality, using the air as a vehicle of dissemination. However, the ability of this airborne microbial community to contaminate the milk, like the sources of origin of these microorganisms, has not been well studied in dairy farms until now. This review examines the importance of different factors that affect the environmental quality of dairy farms, and must, therefore, be taken into account when considering the importance of environmental microbiology as a tool in the improvement of the quality of milk and dairy products.
This review attempts to reflect the importance of different factors that affect the environmental quality of dairy farms and must, therefore, be taken into account when considering the importance of environmental microbiology as a tool in the improvement of the quality of milk and dairy products. The effect of a factor such as temperature is vital for the dairy farm environment, especially when the temperatures are extreme, because a proper choice of temperature range improves the quality of the air and, thus, animal welfare. Similarly, the appropriate level of relative humidity in the environment should be taken into consideration to avoid the proliferation of microorganisms on the farm. Air quality, well-designed livestock housing, proper hygienic practices on the farm, stocking density, and the materials used in the livestock houses are all important factors in the concentration of microorganisms in the environment, promoting better welfare for the animals. In addition, a ventilation system is required to prevent the pollution of the farm environment. It is demonstrated that proper ventilation reduces the microbial load of the environment of dairy farms, enhancing the quality of the air and, therefore, the wellbeing of the animals. All this information is very useful to establish certain standards on dairy farms to improve the quality of the environment and, thereby, achieve better quality milk and dairy products. View Full-Text
Keywords: dairy farm environment; air quality; airborne microorganism; milk dairy farm environment; air quality; airborne microorganism; milk
MDPI and ACS Style

Quintana, Á.R.; Seseña, S.; Garzón, A.; Arias, R. Factors Affecting Levels of Airborne Bacteria in Dairy Farms: A Review. Animals 2020, 10, 526.

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