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Open AccessCommunication

Mammary Transcriptome Profile during Peak and Late Lactation Reveals Differentially Expression Genes Related to Inflammation and Immunity in Chinese Holstein

by Ziyin Han 1,2,†, Yongliang Fan 1,2,†, Zhangping Yang 1,2,*, Juan J. Loor 3 and Yi Yang 4,*
1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
2
Joint International Research Laboratory of Agriculture & Agri-Product Safety, Ministry of Education, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225009, China
3
Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801, USA
4
Jiangsu Co-innovation Center for the Prevention and Control of Important Animal Infectious Diseases and Zoonoses, Yangzhou University College of Veterinary Medicine, Yangzhou 225009, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Animals 2020, 10(3), 510; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10030510
Received: 2 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 19 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Cattle)
Milk somatic cell count, referring to the total number of somatic cells per milliliter of bovine milk, changes regularly during the lactation cycle. The somatic cell count of healthy cows is usually higher in late lactation than in peak lactation. When the inflammatory response in dairy cow mammary gland becomes more intense, the milk somatic cell count increases together with the reduction of milk quality and yield. Autoimmunity was thought to play an important role in the prevention of mastitis in late lactation of dairy cattle. However, the underlying mechanisms related to the gene expression levels during the process remain unknown. In this study, transcriptome sequencing was performed to screen the differentially expressed genes related to the inflammation and immunity in healthy Chinese Holstein mammary glands. Our findings are helpful to understand the physiological functions of mammary inflammation of Chinese Holstein during late lactation.
Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk is widely used in the dairy industry, as an indicator of the health of mammary gland. While the SCC of dairy cattle was higher in late lactation than in peak lactation, its association with gene expressions of mammary gland were largely unknown. In this study, a transcriptomic sequencing approach and bioinformatics analysis were used to investigate the differential expressed genes (DEGs) associated with inflammation and immunity between peak and late periods of lactation in Chinese Holstein. A total of 446 DEGs (padj < 0.05 and fold change >2) were identified, 50 of which belonged to seven pathways and five terms related to inflammation and immunity. Our data suggested that the activation of nuclear transcription factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway caused inflammatory response, and the activation of chemokine signaling pathway and cytokine–cytokine receptor interaction signaling pathway caused a protective immune response to ensure dairy cows health during late lactation. Our findings deepen the understanding of the molecular mechanism and physiological functions of mammary inflammation in Chinese Holstein during late lactation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Chinese Holstein; transcriptome; lactation initiation; mammary gland; differentially expressed genes Chinese Holstein; transcriptome; lactation initiation; mammary gland; differentially expressed genes
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Han, Z.; Fan, Y.; Yang, Z.; Loor, J.J.; Yang, Y. Mammary Transcriptome Profile during Peak and Late Lactation Reveals Differentially Expression Genes Related to Inflammation and Immunity in Chinese Holstein. Animals 2020, 10, 510.

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