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Anthelmintic Activity of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) and Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep

1
Institute of Animal Physiology, Centre of Biosciences of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
2
Institute of Parasitology of Slovak Academy of Sciences, 040 01 Košice, Slovakia
3
Medical University of Wroclaw, Department of Pharmaceutical Biology with Botanical Garden of Medicinal Plants, 50-556 Wroclaw, Poland
4
Poznan University of Life Sciences, Department of Animal Nutrition, 60-637 Poznan, Poland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(2), 219; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10020219
Received: 8 December 2019 / Revised: 23 January 2020 / Accepted: 26 January 2020 / Published: 29 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Veterinary Microbiology & Parasitology)
The gastrointestinal parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus of small ruminants is an important target for chemoprophylaxis. Repeated use of anthelmintics in the form of synthetic drugs increases the risk of residues in food products and the development of anthelmintic resistance. However, the use of combinations of dry traditional medicinal plants as nutraceuticals is an alternative to chemotherapeutics for controlling haemonchosis in ruminants. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with wormwood, mallow and their mix on parasitological status and inflammatory response in lambs experimentally infected with H. contortus. Simultaneously, the present study evaluated by the egg hatch test the in vitro anthelminthic effects of different concentrations (50–1.563 mg/mL) of the aqueous extracts of these plants. Our results revealed that the strong anthelmintic effect of both medicinal plants observed in vitro was not fully confirmed in vivo. This knowledge builds on our previously published findings and highlights that the effect of dry medicinal plants depends on the variety and synergy of plant polyphenols and the combination of bioactive compounds that together have an effect and contribute to a certain pharmacological efficacy.
The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of dry wormwood and mallow on the gastrointestinal parasite of small ruminants Haemonchus contortus. Twenty-four experimentally infected lambs were randomly divided into four groups of six animals each: unsupplemented lambs, lambs supplemented with wormwood, lambs supplemented with mallow and animals supplemented with a mix of both plants. Faecal samples from the lambs were collected on day 23, 29, 36, 43, 50, 57, 64 and 75 post-infection for quantification of the number of eggs per gram (EPG). The mix of both plants contained phenolic acids (10.7 g/kg DM) and flavonoids (5.51 g/kg DM). The nematode eggs were collected and in vitro egg hatch test was performed. The aqueous extracts of both plants exhibited strong ovicidal effect on H. contortus, with ED50 and ED99 values of 1.40 and 3.76 mg/mL and 2.17 and 5.89 mg/mL, respectively, in the in vitro tests. Despite the great individual differences between the treated lambs in eggs reduction, the mean EPG of the untreated and treated groups did not differ (p > 0.05). Our results indicate that using wormwood and mallow as dietary supplements do not have a sufficient effect on lambs infected with H. contortus.
Keywords: dietary treatments; plant bioactive compounds; egg counts; UHRMS; Haemonchus contortus dietary treatments; plant bioactive compounds; egg counts; UHRMS; Haemonchus contortus
MDPI and ACS Style

Mravčáková, D.; Komáromyová, M.; Babják, M.; Urda Dolinská, M.; Königová , A.; Petrič , D.; Čobanová , K.; Ślusarczyk , S.; Cieslak , A.; Várady , M.; Váradyová , Z. Anthelmintic Activity of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L.) and Mallow (Malva sylvestris L.) against Haemonchus contortus in Sheep. Animals 2020, 10, 219.

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