Genomic Characterization of a Set of Iberian Peninsula Bovine Local Breeds at Risk of Extinction: Morenas Gallegas
Universidad Alfonxo X El Sabio, Avda. Universidad, 1., 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
Dpto. Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo, Spain
Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
VELOGEN.SL. Servicio de Genética, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Centro de Recursos Zooxenéticos de Galicia, 32152 Fontefiz, Ourense, Spain
Federación de Razas Autóctonas de Galicia-BOAGA, 32152 Fontefiz, Ourense, Spain
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
Genetic characterization of breeds at risk of extinction is crucial in order to develop efficient conservation plans. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, a set of bovine breeds summarized as Morenas Gallegas (Cachena, Caldelá, Frieiresa, Limiá, and Vianesa), located in the Northwest of Spain, were studied by using genomics tools. Our aim was to analyze their genetic diversity and their genetic relationships with a set of local and cosmopolitan European bovine breeds. The results evidence the specific genetic signature of the Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds. Cachena was the only breed located in the same cluster as the Spanish bovine breeds analyzed, while Caldelá, Frieiresa, Limiá, and Vianesa were clearly separated. The genetic diversity of the set of Morenas Gallegas breeds is intermediate or high, but Frieiresa breed showed the higher value of inbreeding coefficient and requires special attention in the next years. Vianesa shows two different lineages, with an evident Frieiresa component and without it. Our results are the proof of the valuable genetic reservoir that Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds is due to their uniqueness in comparison with other Spanish bovine breeds.