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Open AccessArticle

Genomic Characterization of a Set of Iberian Peninsula Bovine Local Breeds at Risk of Extinction: Morenas Gallegas

1
Universidad Alfonxo X El Sabio, Avda. Universidad, 1., 28691 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, Spain
2
Dpto. Estadística e Investigación Operativa, Universidad de Oviedo, 33007 Oviedo, Spain
3
Departamento de Producción Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
VELOGEN.SL. Servicio de Genética, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad Complutense, Avenida Puerta de Hierro, s/n, 28040 Madrid, Spain
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Centro de Recursos Zooxenéticos de Galicia, 32152 Fontefiz, Ourense, Spain
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Federación de Razas Autóctonas de Galicia-BOAGA, 32152 Fontefiz, Ourense, Spain
7
Centro Tecnológico de la Carne de Galicia, 32900 San Cibrao das Viñas, Ourense, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1956; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111956
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 9 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Morpho-Functional and Genetic Characterization of Local Breeds)
Genetic characterization of breeds at risk of extinction is crucial in order to develop efficient conservation plans. In this study, for the first time to our knowledge, a set of bovine breeds summarized as Morenas Gallegas (Cachena, Caldelá, Frieiresa, Limiá, and Vianesa), located in the Northwest of Spain, were studied by using genomics tools. Our aim was to analyze their genetic diversity and their genetic relationships with a set of local and cosmopolitan European bovine breeds. The results evidence the specific genetic signature of the Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds. Cachena was the only breed located in the same cluster as the Spanish bovine breeds analyzed, while Caldelá, Frieiresa, Limiá, and Vianesa were clearly separated. The genetic diversity of the set of Morenas Gallegas breeds is intermediate or high, but Frieiresa breed showed the higher value of inbreeding coefficient and requires special attention in the next years. Vianesa shows two different lineages, with an evident Frieiresa component and without it. Our results are the proof of the valuable genetic reservoir that Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds is due to their uniqueness in comparison with other Spanish bovine breeds.
A set of five local bovine breeds in danger of extinction named Cachena, Caldelá, Limiá, Frieiresa, and Vianesa and included in the group of Morenas Gallegas are located in the Autonomous Community of Galicia at the Northwest of Spain. Local authorities launched a conservation plan at the end of the 21th century in order to preserve this important genetic reservoir. However, Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds never have been analyzed with genomic tools and this information may be crucial to develop conservation plans. The aim of the study was to analyze their genetic diversity and genetic relationships with a set of local and cosmopolitan European bovine breeds using single nucleotide polymorphisms. Our results show own genetic signatures for the Morenas Gallegas breeds which form a separate cluster when compared to the Spanish breeds analyzed, with the exception of the Cachena breed. The genetic diversity levels of the Morenas Gallegas were intermediate or high, and low inbreeding coefficients can be found except for the Frieiresa breed (11%). Vianesa breed evidenced two lineages depending on the Frieiresa component influence. The Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds group represent an important Spanish bovine genetic reservoir and despite their classification within a single generic group, the five breeds show their own genetic uniqueness. View Full-Text
Keywords: genomic diversity; Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds; Singel Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); biodiversity conservation; Caldelá; Cachena; Frieiresa; Limiá; VIanesa genomic diversity; Morenas Gallegas bovine breeds; Singel Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs); biodiversity conservation; Caldelá; Cachena; Frieiresa; Limiá; VIanesa
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MDPI and ACS Style

García-Atance, M.A.; Carleos, C.; Dunner, S.; G. Eusebi, P.; Rivero, C.J.; Justo, J.R.; Fernández, M.; Cañón, J.; Cortés, Ó. Genomic Characterization of a Set of Iberian Peninsula Bovine Local Breeds at Risk of Extinction: Morenas Gallegas. Animals 2020, 10, 1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111956

AMA Style

García-Atance MA, Carleos C, Dunner S, G. Eusebi P, Rivero CJ, Justo JR, Fernández M, Cañón J, Cortés Ó. Genomic Characterization of a Set of Iberian Peninsula Bovine Local Breeds at Risk of Extinction: Morenas Gallegas. Animals. 2020; 10(11):1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111956

Chicago/Turabian Style

García-Atance, María A.; Carleos, Carlos; Dunner, Susana; G. Eusebi, Paulina; Rivero, Castor J.; Justo, José R.; Fernández, Miguel; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar. 2020. "Genomic Characterization of a Set of Iberian Peninsula Bovine Local Breeds at Risk of Extinction: Morenas Gallegas" Animals 10, no. 11: 1956. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111956

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