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Article

A Retrospective Study of Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (“Lumpy Jaw”) in Captive Macropods across Australia and Europe: Using Data from the Past to Inform Future Macropod Management

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Conservation Medicine, College of Science Health, Education and Engineering, Murdoch University, Perth 6150, Australia
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Twycross Zoo, Atherstone, Warwickshire CV9 3PX, UK
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Brackenhurst Campus, School of Animal, Rural and Environmental Sciences, Nottingham Trent University, Southwell, Nottinghamshire NG25 0QF, UK
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School of Population and Global Health, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Australia
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Taronga Conservation Society, Mosman 2088, Australia
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Adelaide Zoo, Adelaide 5000, Australia
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Melbourne Zoo, Parkville 3052, Australia
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Perth Zoo, South Perth 6151, Australia
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Paington Zoo, Painton, Devon TQ4 7EU, UK
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Basel Zoo, 4054 Basel, Switzerland
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Blackpool Zoo, Blackpool, Lancashire FY3 8PP, UK
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Flamingo Land, Malton, Yorkshire YO17 6UX, UK
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(11), 1954; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111954
Received: 15 September 2020 / Revised: 19 October 2020 / Accepted: 20 October 2020 / Published: 23 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Evidence-Based Practice in Zoo Animal Management)
Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (MPPD), or ‘lumpy jaw’, is an often-fatal dental disease commonly reported in captive kangaroos and wallabies (macropods) worldwide. The disease is difficult to treat successfully, resulting in high recurrence and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to determine animal and environmental factors that may increase the risk of developing MPPD. We conducted a multi-institution study of MPPD in macropods in zoos in Australia, and compared data with those in European zoos, where macropods are popular exhibit animals. This study reports risk factors for the development of disease including region, age, sex and particular stressors, such as transport between enclosures and between zoos. This information contributes to the understanding of disease development and advances the evidence base for preventive management strategies. We recommend protocols to reduce or prevent outbreaks of MPPD in zoos, thus decreasing morbidity and mortality rates of this challenging disease. The implementation of these recommendations will benefit the welfare and health of captive macropods worldwide.
Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (MPPD) is a well-recognised disease that causes high morbidity and mortality in captive macropods worldwide. Epidemiological data on MMPD are limited, although multiple risk factors associated with a captive environment appear to contribute to the development of clinical disease. The identification of risk factors associated with MPPD would assist with the development of preventive management strategies, potentially reducing mortality. Veterinary and husbandry records from eight institutions across Australia and Europe were analysed in a retrospective cohort study (1995 to 2016), examining risk factors for the development of MPPD. A review of records for 2759 macropods found incidence rates (IR) and risk of infection differed between geographic regions and individual institutions. The risk of developing MPPD increased with age, particularly for macropods >10 years (Australia Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 7.63, p < 0.001; Europe IRR 7.38, p < 0.001). Prognosis was typically poor, with 62.5% mortality reported for Australian and European regions combined. Practical recommendations to reduce disease risk have been developed, which will assist zoos in providing optimal long-term health management for captive macropods and, subsequently, have a positive impact on both the welfare and conservation of macropods housed in zoos globally. View Full-Text
Keywords: kangaroo; wallaby; epidemiology; zoo; dental disease; animal welfare kangaroo; wallaby; epidemiology; zoo; dental disease; animal welfare
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rendle, J.; Jackson, B.; Hoorn, S.V.; Yeap, L.; Warren, K.; Donaldson, R.; Ward, S.J.; Vogelnest, L.; McLelland, D.; Lynch, M.; Vitali, S.; Sayers, G.; Wyss, F.; Webster, D.; Snipp, R.; Vaughan-Higgins, R. A Retrospective Study of Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (“Lumpy Jaw”) in Captive Macropods across Australia and Europe: Using Data from the Past to Inform Future Macropod Management. Animals 2020, 10, 1954. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111954

AMA Style

Rendle J, Jackson B, Hoorn SV, Yeap L, Warren K, Donaldson R, Ward SJ, Vogelnest L, McLelland D, Lynch M, Vitali S, Sayers G, Wyss F, Webster D, Snipp R, Vaughan-Higgins R. A Retrospective Study of Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (“Lumpy Jaw”) in Captive Macropods across Australia and Europe: Using Data from the Past to Inform Future Macropod Management. Animals. 2020; 10(11):1954. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111954

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rendle, Jessica, Bethany Jackson, Stephen V. Hoorn, Lian Yeap, Kristin Warren, Rebecca Donaldson, Samantha J. Ward, Larry Vogelnest, David McLelland, Michael Lynch, Simone Vitali, Ghislaine Sayers, Fabia Wyss, Darren Webster, Ross Snipp, and Rebecca Vaughan-Higgins. 2020. "A Retrospective Study of Macropod Progressive Periodontal Disease (“Lumpy Jaw”) in Captive Macropods across Australia and Europe: Using Data from the Past to Inform Future Macropod Management" Animals 10, no. 11: 1954. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10111954

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