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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Evaluation of the Effects of Tylosin on the Composition and Metabolism of Canine Fecal Microbiota

1
Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, University of Bologna, via Tolara di Sopra 50, 40064 Ozzano Emilia (BO), Italy
2
Department for Life Quality Studies, University of Bologna, Corso d’Augusto 237, 47921 Rimini, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010098
Received: 31 October 2019 / Revised: 20 December 2019 / Accepted: 3 January 2020 / Published: 8 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Companion Animals)
The antibiotic-responsive enteropathy is a common canine chronic disorder for which tylosin represents an effective widely used therapeutic option, although its mechanism of action, beyond the well-known antibacterial activity, is still unclear. Given the beneficial role of prebiotic substrates for gut health, positive outcomes deriving from the association of tylosin with some prebiotic oligosaccharides might be supposed. The present study investigated in vitro the effects of tylosin, alone or supplemented with fructooligosaccharides, galactooligosaccharides, or xylooligosaccharides, on the composition and activity of the fecal microbiota of healthy dogs. It was partially confirmed that the antibacterial effect of tylosin, given the reduction of some microbial populations and metabolites, e.g., volatile fatty acids. Interestingly, the association of tylosin with prebiotics revealed counteracting effects on some undesirable changes exerted by tylosin, e.g., the reduction of bacteria generally considered beneficial such as lactobacilli and Clostridium cluster XIVa as well as volatile fatty acids, i.e., microbial fermentative end-products that are recognized as essential for enterocytes homeostasis.
The present study investigated the in vitro effects of tylosin (TYL), alone or associated with prebiotics (PRE), on selected canine fecal parameters. Eight treatments were set up: control diet with no addition of substrates; TYL; Fructooligosaccharides (FOS); Galactooligosaccharides (GOS); Xylooligosaccharides (XOS); TYL + FOS; TYL + GOS; TYL + XOS. The flasks (five for treatment), containing a canine fecal suspension (prepared with the feces of healthy adult dogs) and the residue of an in vitro digested dry dog food, were incubated in an anaerobic chamber at 39 °C. TYL and PRE were added at a concentration of 0.2 and 1 g/L, respectively. Samples were collected after 6 and 24 h for analyses. PRE decreased pH values, iso-butyrate, and iso-valerate throughout the incubation; increased lactobacilli, cadaverine, and, tendentiously, total volatile fatty acids after 6 h; increased n-butyrate, putrescine, spermidine, and reduced spermine and E. coli after 24 h. TYL resulted in lower total volatile fatty acids and lactobacilli and higher Clostridium cluster I after 6 h and higher pH values, spermidine, and E. coli throughout the study. When associated with TYL, PRE counteracted some undesirable effects of the antibiotic such as the decrease of lactobacilli and Clostridium cluster XIVa at both 6 and 24 h. In the present study, TYL exhibited inhibitory effects on canine fecal microbiota partially counteracted by PRE supplementation. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic-responsive enteropathy; dog; fecal microbiota; prebiotics; tylosin antibiotic-responsive enteropathy; dog; fecal microbiota; prebiotics; tylosin
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Pinna, C.; Vecchiato, C.G.; Grandi, M.; Mammi, L.M.E.; Stefanelli, C.; Biagi, G. In Vitro Evaluation of the Effects of Tylosin on the Composition and Metabolism of Canine Fecal Microbiota. Animals 2020, 10, 98.

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