Human Relationships with Domestic and Other Animals: One Health, One Welfare, One Biology
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Departamento de Producción Animal Medellín, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia 050034, Colombia
Grupo ETCO, Group of Studies and Research in Animal Ethology and Ecology, Jaboticabal-SP 14884-900, Brazil
Swine Teaching and Research Center, Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA
St Catharine’s College and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
In a situation where human actions are damaging much of the life of the world, it is important to remember that the basic concepts of biology, welfare, and health are the same for humans and all other animals. Human actions have wide consequences and we need to change the way we interact with other living beings. An understanding of the concepts of one health, one welfare, one biology, and their application to daily decisions about production systems, public policies, markets, and consumers could mitigate current negative impacts. In particular, an understanding of human relationships with animals used for food, work, or company helps in dealing with challenges concerning their use and system sustainability, including the animal’s welfare. Animal welfare should always be considered in our relationships with animals, not only for direct impacts, e.g., manipulations, but also for indirect effects, e.g., on the environment, disease spread, natural resource availability, culture, and society.