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Open AccessArticle

Human Relationships with Domestic and Other Animals: One Health, One Welfare, One Biology

1
Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Departamento de Producción Animal Medellín, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Antioquia 050034, Colombia
2
Grupo ETCO, Group of Studies and Research in Animal Ethology and Ecology, Jaboticabal-SP 14884-900, Brazil
3
Swine Teaching and Research Center, Department of Clinical Studies, New Bolton Center, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Kennett Square, PA 19348, USA
4
St Catharine’s College and Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ES, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Animals 2020, 10(1), 43; https://doi.org/10.3390/ani10010043
Received: 29 October 2019 / Revised: 2 December 2019 / Accepted: 20 December 2019 / Published: 24 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Domestic Animal Behavior and Well-Being)
In a situation where human actions are damaging much of the life of the world, it is important to remember that the basic concepts of biology, welfare, and health are the same for humans and all other animals. Human actions have wide consequences and we need to change the way we interact with other living beings. An understanding of the concepts of one health, one welfare, one biology, and their application to daily decisions about production systems, public policies, markets, and consumers could mitigate current negative impacts. In particular, an understanding of human relationships with animals used for food, work, or company helps in dealing with challenges concerning their use and system sustainability, including the animal’s welfare. Animal welfare should always be considered in our relationships with animals, not only for direct impacts, e.g., manipulations, but also for indirect effects, e.g., on the environment, disease spread, natural resource availability, culture, and society.
Excessive human population growth, uncontrolled use of natural resources, including deforestation, mining, wasteful systems, biodiversity reduction by agriculture, and damaging climate change affect the existence of all animals, including humans. This discussion is now urgent and people are rethinking their links with the animals we use for clothing, food, work, companionship, entertainment, and research. The concepts of one health, one welfare, and one biology are discussed as a background to driving global change. Nothing should be exploited without considering the ethics of the action and the consequences. This review concerns domesticated animals, including those used for human consumption of meat, eggs, and milk; horses kept for work; and dogs kept for company. Animal welfare includes health, emotional state, and comfort while moving and resting, and is affected by possibilities to show behavior and relationships with others of the same species or with humans. We show some examples of the relations between humans and domesticated animals in the environmental context, including zoonotic diseases, and consider the consequences and the new paradigms resulting from current awareness. View Full-Text
Keywords: animal welfare; animal behavior; sentience; zoonoses; sustainability animal welfare; animal behavior; sentience; zoonoses; sustainability
MDPI and ACS Style

Tarazona, A.M.; Ceballos, M.C.; Broom, D.M. Human Relationships with Domestic and Other Animals: One Health, One Welfare, One Biology. Animals 2020, 10, 43.

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