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Artificial Rearing of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles for Supportive Breeding Programs Induces Long-Term Effects on Gut Microbiota after Stocking

1
Department of Biology, Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Laval University, Québec, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
3
Department of Biology, Canadian Rivers Institute, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB E3B 5A3, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jarl Bøgwald
Microorganisms 2021, 9(9), 1932; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091932
Received: 11 August 2021 / Revised: 3 September 2021 / Accepted: 6 September 2021 / Published: 11 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
In supportive breeding programs for wild salmon populations, stocked parr experience higher mortality rates than wild ones. Among other aspects of phenotype, the gut microbiota of artificially raised parr differs from that of wild parr before stocking. Early steps of microbiota ontogeny are tightly dependent upon environmental conditions, both of which exert long-term effects on host physiology. Therefore, our objective was to assess to what extent the resilience capacity of the microbiota of stocked salmon may prevent taxonomic convergence with that of their wild congeners after two months in the same natural environment. Using the 16S SSU rRNA marker gene, we tested the general hypothesis that environmental conditions during the very first steps of microbiota ontogeny imprint a permanent effect on later stages of microbiota recruitment. Our results first showed that gut microbiota composition of stocked and wild parr from the same genetic population, and sharing the same environment, was dependent on the early rearing environment. In contrast, skin microbiota in stocked individuals converged to that of wild individuals. Taxonomic composition and co-occurrence network analyses suggest an impairment of wild bacteria recruitment and a higher instability for the gut microbiota of stocked parr. This study is the first to demonstrate the long-term effect of early microbiota ontogeny in artificial rearing for natural population conservation programs, raising the need to implement microbial ecology. View Full-Text
Keywords: 16S rRNA subunit; Atlantic salmon; artificial rearing; microbial ecology; microbiota; supportive breeding 16S rRNA subunit; Atlantic salmon; artificial rearing; microbial ecology; microbiota; supportive breeding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lavoie, C.; Wellband, K.; Perreault, A.; Bernatchez, L.; Derome, N. Artificial Rearing of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles for Supportive Breeding Programs Induces Long-Term Effects on Gut Microbiota after Stocking. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091932

AMA Style

Lavoie C, Wellband K, Perreault A, Bernatchez L, Derome N. Artificial Rearing of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles for Supportive Breeding Programs Induces Long-Term Effects on Gut Microbiota after Stocking. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(9):1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091932

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lavoie, Camille, Kyle Wellband, Alysse Perreault, Louis Bernatchez, and Nicolas Derome. 2021. "Artificial Rearing of Atlantic Salmon Juveniles for Supportive Breeding Programs Induces Long-Term Effects on Gut Microbiota after Stocking" Microorganisms 9, no. 9: 1932. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9091932

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