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Article

Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cells in Biofilms

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State Key Laboratory of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center for Plasma Biomedicine, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
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School of Life Science and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
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School of Physics, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China
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Frank Reidy Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23508, USA
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Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USA
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Gianfranco Donelli
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 1072; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051072
Received: 22 April 2021 / Revised: 13 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biofilm)
Biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria are a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is attractive for sterilization, especially to disrupt biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant bacteria. However, the underlying molecular mechanism is not clear. In this study, CAP effectively reduced the living cells in the biofilms formed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and 6 min treatment with CAP reduced the S. aureus cells in biofilms by 3.5 log10. The treatment with CAP caused the polymerization of SaFtsZ and SaClpP proteins in the S. aureus cells of the biofilms. In vitro analysis demonstrated that recombinant SaFtsZ lost its self-assembly capability, and recombinant SaClpP lost its peptidase activity after 2 min of treatment with CAP. Mass spectrometry showed oxidative modifications of a cluster of peaks differing by 16 Da, 31 Da, 32 Da, 47 Da, 48 Da, 62 Da, and 78 Da, induced by reactive species of CAP. It is speculated that the oxidative damage to proteins in S. aureus cells was induced by CAP, which contributed to the reduction of biofilms. This study elucidates the biological effect of CAP on the proteins in bacterial cells of biofilms and provides a basis for the application of CAP in the disinfection of biofilms. View Full-Text
Keywords: cold atmospheric-pressure plasma; biofilm; oxidative damage; reactive species; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus cold atmospheric-pressure plasma; biofilm; oxidative damage; reactive species; methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Guo, L.; Yang, L.; Qi, Y.; Niyazi, G.; Huang, L.; Gou, L.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, L.; Liu, D.; Wang, X.; Chen, H.; Kong, M.G. Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cells in Biofilms. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051072

AMA Style

Guo L, Yang L, Qi Y, Niyazi G, Huang L, Gou L, Wang Z, Zhang L, Liu D, Wang X, Chen H, Kong MG. Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cells in Biofilms. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(5):1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051072

Chicago/Turabian Style

Guo, Li, Lu Yang, Yu Qi, Gulimire Niyazi, Lingling Huang, Lu Gou, Zifeng Wang, Lei Zhang, Dingxin Liu, Xiaohua Wang, Hailan Chen, and Michael G. Kong. 2021. "Cold Atmospheric-Pressure Plasma Caused Protein Damage in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Cells in Biofilms" Microorganisms 9, no. 5: 1072. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051072

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