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Article

Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins in Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens—A Novel, Automated Immunohistochemical Staining Protocol

1
Department of Breast and Endocrine Surgery, Akershus University Hospital (AHUS), 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
2
Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Oslo, Campus Akershus University Hospital (AHUS), 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
3
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo, Norway
4
Department of Clinical Molecular Biology (EpiGen), Akershus University Hospital (AHUS), 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
5
Microbial Pathogenesis Unit, Department of Medicine, BioClinicum, Karolinska Institute, 17177 Solna, Sweden
6
Department of Neurology, Karolinska University Hospital, 17177 Solna, Sweden
7
Department of Oncology, Akershus University Hospital (AHUS), 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
8
Department of Pathology, Akershus University Hospital (AHUS), 1478 Nordbyhagen, Norway
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally.
Shared last authorship.
Academic Editor: Pasquale Ferrante
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 1059; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051059
Received: 5 April 2021 / Revised: 2 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 13 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cytomegalovirus, Inflammation and Oncomodulation)
Emerging evidence supports a significant association between human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and human malignancies, suggesting HCMV as a human oncomodulatory virus. HCMV gene products are found in >90% of breast cancer tumors and seem to be correlated with more aggressive disease. The definitive diagnosis of HCMV relies on identification of virus inclusions and/or viral proteins by different techniques including immunohistochemical staining. In order to reduce biases and improve clinical value of HCMV diagnostics in oncological pathology, automation of the procedure is needed and this was the purpose of this study. Tumor specimens from 115 patients treated for primary breast cancer at Akershus University Hospital in Norway were available for the validation of the staining method in this retrospective study. We demonstrate that our method is highly sensitive and delivers excellent reproducibility for staining of HCMV late antigen (LA), which makes this method useful for future routine diagnostics and scientific applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: human cytomegalovirus; HCMV; breast cancer; immunohistochemical staining; IHC human cytomegalovirus; HCMV; breast cancer; immunohistochemical staining; IHC
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MDPI and ACS Style

Touma, J.; Liu, Y.; Rahbar, A.; Pantalone, M.R.; Almazan, N.M.; Vetvik, K.; Söderberg-Nauclér, C.; Geisler, J.; Sauer, T. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins in Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens—A Novel, Automated Immunohistochemical Staining Protocol. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051059

AMA Style

Touma J, Liu Y, Rahbar A, Pantalone MR, Almazan NM, Vetvik K, Söderberg-Nauclér C, Geisler J, Sauer T. Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins in Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens—A Novel, Automated Immunohistochemical Staining Protocol. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(5):1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051059

Chicago/Turabian Style

Touma, Joel, Yan Liu, Afsar Rahbar, Mattia R. Pantalone, Nerea M. Almazan, Katja Vetvik, Cecilia Söderberg-Nauclér, Jürgen Geisler, and Torill Sauer. 2021. "Detection of Human Cytomegalovirus Proteins in Paraffin-Embedded Breast Cancer Tissue Specimens—A Novel, Automated Immunohistochemical Staining Protocol" Microorganisms 9, no. 5: 1059. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051059

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