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Article

Genomic and Phenotypic Analysis of Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Tertiary Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria

1
Institute of Hygiene and Medical Microbiology, Medical University of Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
2
Center for Biomedical Technology, Department for Biomedical Research, Danube University Krems, 3500 Krems, Austria
3
Ares Genetics GmbH, 1030 Vienna, Austria
4
MB-LAB—Clinical Microbiology Laboratory, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors equally contributed to this work.
Academic Editors: Costas C. Papagiannitsis and Ibrahim Bitar
Microorganisms 2021, 9(5), 1023; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051023
Received: 14 April 2021 / Revised: 6 May 2021 / Accepted: 7 May 2021 / Published: 10 May 2021
Whole genome sequencing is a useful tool to monitor the spread of resistance mechanisms in bacteria. In this retrospective study, we investigated genetic resistance mechanisms, sequence types (ST) and respective phenotypes of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (LRSE, n = 129) recovered from a cohort of patients receiving or not receiving linezolid within a tertiary hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Hereby, the point mutation G2603U in the 23S rRNA (n = 91) was the major resistance mechanism followed by the presence of plasmid-derived cfr (n = 30). The majority of LRSE isolates were ST2 strains, followed by ST5. LRSE isolates expressed a high resistance level to linezolid with a minimal inhibitory concentration of ≥256 mg/L (n = 83) in most isolates, particularly in strains carrying the cfr gene (p < 0.001). Linezolid usage was the most prominent (but not the only) trigger for the development of linezolid resistance. However, administration of linezolid was not associated with a specific resistance mechanism. Restriction of linezolid usage and the monitoring of plasmid-derived cfr in LRSE are potential key steps to reduce linezolid resistance and its transmission to more pathogenic Gram-positive bacteria. View Full-Text
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; linezolid; Staphylococcus epidermidis; whole genome sequencing; surveillance antimicrobial resistance; linezolid; Staphylococcus epidermidis; whole genome sequencing; surveillance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Huber, S.; Knoll, M.A.; Berktold, M.; Würzner, R.; Brindlmayer, A.; Weber, V.; Posch, A.E.; Mrazek, K.; Lepuschitz, S.; Ante, M.; Beisken, S.; Orth-Höller, D.; Weinberger, J. Genomic and Phenotypic Analysis of Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Tertiary Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 1023. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051023

AMA Style

Huber S, Knoll MA, Berktold M, Würzner R, Brindlmayer A, Weber V, Posch AE, Mrazek K, Lepuschitz S, Ante M, Beisken S, Orth-Höller D, Weinberger J. Genomic and Phenotypic Analysis of Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Tertiary Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(5):1023. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Huber, Silke, Miriam A. Knoll, Michael Berktold, Reinhard Würzner, Anita Brindlmayer, Viktoria Weber, Andreas E. Posch, Katharina Mrazek, Sarah Lepuschitz, Michael Ante, Stephan Beisken, Dorothea Orth-Höller, and Johannes Weinberger. 2021. "Genomic and Phenotypic Analysis of Linezolid-Resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis in a Tertiary Hospital in Innsbruck, Austria" Microorganisms 9, no. 5: 1023. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9051023

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