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The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis and Resilience to Developing Anxiety or Depression under Stress

1
School of Food and Advanced Technology, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
2
The New Zealand Institute for Plant and Food Research Limited, Palmerston North 4410, New Zealand
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Riddet Institute, Massey University, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
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Smart Foods Innovation Centre of Excellence, AgResearch, Palmerston North 4442, New Zealand
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Department of Human Nutrition, Otago University, Dunedin 9016, New Zealand
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High-Value Nutrition National Science Challenge, Auckland 1145, New Zealand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Khosrow Adeli
Microorganisms 2021, 9(4), 723; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040723
Received: 23 March 2021 / Revised: 29 March 2021 / Accepted: 29 March 2021 / Published: 31 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Gut Microbiota)
Episodes of depression and anxiety commonly follow the experience of stress, however not everyone who experiences stress develops a mood disorder. Individuals who are able to experience stress without a negative emotional effect are considered stress resilient. Stress-resilience (and its counterpart stress-susceptibility) are influenced by several psychological and biological factors, including the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Emerging research shows that the gut microbiota can influence mood, and that stress is an important variable in this relationship. Stress alters the gut microbiota and plausibly this could contribute to stress-related changes in mood. Most of the reported research has been conducted using animal models and demonstrates a relationship between gut microbiome and mood. The translational evidence from human clinical studies however is rather limited. In this review we examine the microbiome-gut-brain axis research in relation to stress resilience. View Full-Text
Keywords: anxiety; depression; mood; gut microbiota; stress; probiotics; gut-inflammation; gut-permeability; enteric nervous system; vagus nerve anxiety; depression; mood; gut microbiota; stress; probiotics; gut-inflammation; gut-permeability; enteric nervous system; vagus nerve
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bear, T.; Dalziel, J.; Coad, J.; Roy, N.; Butts, C.; Gopal, P. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis and Resilience to Developing Anxiety or Depression under Stress. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040723

AMA Style

Bear T, Dalziel J, Coad J, Roy N, Butts C, Gopal P. The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis and Resilience to Developing Anxiety or Depression under Stress. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(4):723. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040723

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bear, Tracey, Julie Dalziel, Jane Coad, Nicole Roy, Christine Butts, and Pramod Gopal. 2021. "The Microbiome-Gut-Brain Axis and Resilience to Developing Anxiety or Depression under Stress" Microorganisms 9, no. 4: 723. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9040723

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