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Open AccessArticle

Microbial Succession under Freeze–Thaw Events and Its Potential for Hydrocarbon Degradation in Nutrient-Amended Antarctic Soil

1
Laboratory of Molecular Microbial Ecology, Institute of Microbiology Paulo de Góes (IMPG), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-901, Brazil
2
Laboratory of Marine and Environmental Studies, Department of Chemistry, PUC-Rio, Rio de Janeiro 22541-041, Brazil
3
Multiuser Unit of Environmental Analysis, Institute of Biology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro 21941-902, Brazil
4
Department of Thematic Studies—Environmental Change, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden
5
Red Sea Research Center (RSRC), Division of Biological and Environmental Science and Engineering (BESE), King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), Thuwal 23955, Saudi Arabia
6
Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA
7
ICTAR—The International Centre for Terrestrial Antarctic Research, University of Waikato, 3216 Hamilton, New Zealand
8
BESE, Biological and Environmental Sciences and Engineering Division, KAUST, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology, Thuwal 23955-6900, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mariusz Cycoń
Microorganisms 2021, 9(3), 609; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030609
Received: 14 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 6 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microorganisms in The Polluted Soil)
The polar regions have relatively low richness and diversity of plants and animals, and the basis of the entire ecological chain is supported by microbial diversity. In these regions, understanding the microbial response against environmental factors and anthropogenic disturbances is essential to understand patterns better, prevent isolated events, and apply biotechnology strategies. The Antarctic continent has been increasingly affected by anthropogenic contamination, and its constant temperature fluctuations limit the application of clean recovery strategies, such as bioremediation. We evaluated the bacterial response in oil-contaminated soil through a nutrient-amended microcosm experiment using two temperature regimes: (i) 4 °C and (ii) a freeze–thaw cycle (FTC) alternating between −20 and 4 °C. Bacterial taxa, such as Myxococcales, Chitinophagaceae, and Acidimicrobiales, were strongly related to the FTC. Rhodococcus was positively related to contaminated soils and further stimulated under FTC conditions. Additionally, the nutrient-amended treatment under the FTC regime enhanced bacterial groups with known biodegradation potential and was efficient in removing hydrocarbons of diesel oil. The experimental design, rates of bacterial succession, and level of hydrocarbon transformation can be considered as a baseline for further studies aimed at improving bioremediation strategies in environments affected by FTC regimes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; hydrocarbon degradation; bioremediation; freeze–thaw; soil Antarctica; hydrocarbon degradation; bioremediation; freeze–thaw; soil
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jesus, H.E.d.; Carreira, R.S.; Paiva, S.S.M.; Massone, C.; Enrich-Prast, A.; Peixoto, R.S.; Rodrigues, J.L.M.; Lee, C.K.; Cary, C.; Rosado, A.S. Microbial Succession under Freeze–Thaw Events and Its Potential for Hydrocarbon Degradation in Nutrient-Amended Antarctic Soil. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030609

AMA Style

Jesus HEd, Carreira RS, Paiva SSM, Massone C, Enrich-Prast A, Peixoto RS, Rodrigues JLM, Lee CK, Cary C, Rosado AS. Microbial Succession under Freeze–Thaw Events and Its Potential for Hydrocarbon Degradation in Nutrient-Amended Antarctic Soil. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(3):609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jesus, Hugo E.d.; Carreira, Renato S.; Paiva, Simone S.M.; Massone, Carlos; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Peixoto, Raquel S.; Rodrigues, Jorge L.M.; Lee, Charles K.; Cary, Craig; Rosado, Alexandre S. 2021. "Microbial Succession under Freeze–Thaw Events and Its Potential for Hydrocarbon Degradation in Nutrient-Amended Antarctic Soil" Microorganisms 9, no. 3: 609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9030609

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