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Review

Gut–Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions

1
Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Department of Head & Skin, Ghent University, Corneel Heymanslaan 10, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3
S-Biomedic, Turnhoutseweg 30, 2340 Beerse, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lionel Breton
Microorganisms 2021, 9(2), 353; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020353
Received: 17 December 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2021 / Accepted: 7 February 2021 / Published: 11 February 2021
The microbiome plays an important role in a wide variety of skin disorders. Not only is the skin microbiome altered, but also surprisingly many skin diseases are accompanied by an altered gut microbiome. The microbiome is a key regulator for the immune system, as it aims to maintain homeostasis by communicating with tissues and organs in a bidirectional manner. Hence, dysbiosis in the skin and/or gut microbiome is associated with an altered immune response, promoting the development of skin diseases, such as atopic dermatitis, psoriasis, acne vulgaris, dandruff, and even skin cancer. Here, we focus on the associations between the microbiome, diet, metabolites, and immune responses in skin pathologies. This review describes an exhaustive list of common skin conditions with associated dysbiosis in the skin microbiome as well as the current body of evidence on gut microbiome dysbiosis, dietary links, and their interplay with skin conditions. An enhanced understanding of the local skin and gut microbiome including the underlying mechanisms is necessary to shed light on the microbial involvement in human skin diseases and to develop new therapeutic approaches. View Full-Text
Keywords: skin microbiome; gut dysbiosis; atopic dermatitis; acne vulgaris; psoriasis; dandruff; skin cancer; rosacea; wound healing; dietary; probiotics skin microbiome; gut dysbiosis; atopic dermatitis; acne vulgaris; psoriasis; dandruff; skin cancer; rosacea; wound healing; dietary; probiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

De Pessemier, B.; Grine, L.; Debaere, M.; Maes, A.; Paetzold, B.; Callewaert, C. Gut–Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020353

AMA Style

De Pessemier B, Grine L, Debaere M, Maes A, Paetzold B, Callewaert C. Gut–Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(2):353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020353

Chicago/Turabian Style

De Pessemier, Britta, Lynda Grine, Melanie Debaere, Aglaya Maes, Bernhard Paetzold, and Chris Callewaert. 2021. "Gut–Skin Axis: Current Knowledge of the Interrelationship between Microbial Dysbiosis and Skin Conditions" Microorganisms 9, no. 2: 353. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9020353

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