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Review

Corynebacterium glutamicum Mechanosensing: From Osmoregulation to L-Glutamate Secretion for the Avian Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis

1
Molecular Cardiology and Biophysics Division, Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
2
St Vincent’s Clinical School, Faculty of Medicine, The University of New South Wales, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 201; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010201
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 19 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Physiology of Corynebacteria)
After the discovery of Corynebacterium glutamicum from avian feces-contaminated soil, its enigmatic L-glutamate secretion by corynebacterial MscCG-type mechanosensitive channels has been utilized for industrial monosodium glutamate production. Bacterial mechanosensitive channels are activated directly by increased membrane tension upon hypoosmotic downshock; thus; the physiological significance of the corynebacterial L-glutamate secretion has been considered as adjusting turgor pressure by releasing cytoplasmic solutes. In this review, we present information that corynebacterial mechanosensitive channels have been evolutionally specialized as carriers to secrete L-glutamate into the surrounding environment in their habitats rather than osmotic safety valves. The lipid modulation activation of MscCG channels in L-glutamate production can be explained by the “Force-From-Lipids” and “Force-From-Tethers” mechanosensing paradigms and differs significantly from mechanical activation upon hypoosmotic shock. The review also provides information on the search for evidence that C. glutamicum was originally a gut bacterium in the avian host with the aim of understanding the physiological roles of corynebacterial mechanosensing. C. glutamicum is able to secrete L-glutamate by mechanosensitive channels in the gut microbiota and help the host brain function via the microbiota–gut–brain axis. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial mechanosensitive channel; MscS-like channel; glutamate exporter bacterial mechanosensitive channel; MscS-like channel; glutamate exporter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nakayama, Y. Corynebacterium glutamicum Mechanosensing: From Osmoregulation to L-Glutamate Secretion for the Avian Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 201. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010201

AMA Style

Nakayama Y. Corynebacterium glutamicum Mechanosensing: From Osmoregulation to L-Glutamate Secretion for the Avian Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):201. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010201

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nakayama, Yoshitaka. 2021. "Corynebacterium glutamicum Mechanosensing: From Osmoregulation to L-Glutamate Secretion for the Avian Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 201. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010201

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