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Open AccessArticle

Bacteria Broadly-Resistant to Last Resort Antibiotics Detected in Commercial Chicken Farms

1
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, College of Agriculture and Life Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Interdepartmental Microbiology Graduate Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2021, 9(1), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010141
Received: 20 December 2020 / Revised: 5 January 2021 / Accepted: 6 January 2021 / Published: 9 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Antimicrobial Resistance: From the Environment to Human Health)
Resistance to last resort antibiotics in bacteria is an emerging threat to human and animal health. It is important to identify the source of these antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria that are resistant to clinically important antibiotics and evaluate their potential transfer among bacteria. The objectives of this study were to (i) detect bacteria resistant to colistin, carbapenems, and β-lactams in commercial poultry farms, (ii) characterize phylogenetic and virulence markers of E. coli isolates to potentiate virulence risk, and (iii) assess potential transfer of AMR from these isolates via conjugation. Ceca contents from laying hens from conventional cage (CC) and cage-free (CF) farms at three maturity stages were randomly sampled and screened for extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter (CRA), and colistin resistant Escherichia coli (CRE) using CHROMagar™ selective media. We found a wide-spread abundance of CRE in both CC and CF hens across all three maturity stages. Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli phylogenetic groups B2 and D, as well as plasmidic virulence markers iss and iutA, were widely associated with AMR E. coli isolates. ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae were uniquely detected in the early lay period of both CC and CF, while multidrug resistant (MDR) Acinetobacter were found in peak and late lay periods of both CC and CF. CRA was detected in CF hens only. blaCMY was detected in ESBL-producing E. coli in CC and CF and MDR Acinetobacter spp. in CC. Finally, the blaCMY was shown to be transferrable via an IncK/B plasmid in CC. The presence of MDR to the last-resort antibiotics that are transferable between bacteria in food-producing animals is alarming and warrants studies to develop strategies for their mitigation in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae; colistin resistant Escherichia coli; carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter; hens; maturity stages; plasmid ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae; colistin resistant Escherichia coli; carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter; hens; maturity stages; plasmid
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jochum, J.M.; Redweik, G.A.J.; Ott, L.C.; Mellata, M. Bacteria Broadly-Resistant to Last Resort Antibiotics Detected in Commercial Chicken Farms. Microorganisms 2021, 9, 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010141

AMA Style

Jochum JM, Redweik GAJ, Ott LC, Mellata M. Bacteria Broadly-Resistant to Last Resort Antibiotics Detected in Commercial Chicken Farms. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(1):141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010141

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jochum, Jared M.; Redweik, Graham A.J.; Ott, Logan C.; Mellata, Melha. 2021. "Bacteria Broadly-Resistant to Last Resort Antibiotics Detected in Commercial Chicken Farms" Microorganisms 9, no. 1: 141. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9010141

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