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Open AccessBrief Report

Emergence of Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Salmonella Typhi in Lahore, Pakistan

1
Allama Iqbal Medical College & Jinnah Hospital (AIMC&JHL), Lahore 54000, Pakistan
2
Department of Microbiology, Government College University, Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
3
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
4
Department of Chemistry, University of Sargodha, Sargodha 40100, Pakistan
5
Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich Research Park, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
6
National Institute of Health, Islamabad 45710, Pakistan
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(9), 1336; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8091336
Received: 23 July 2020 / Revised: 27 August 2020 / Accepted: 28 August 2020 / Published: 1 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Survival, Persistence and Resistance in Salmonella)
Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Salmonella Typhi has been reported in Sindh province of Pakistan since 2016. The potential for further spread is of serious concern as remaining treatment options are severely limited. We report the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of 27 XDR S. Typhi isolated from patients attending Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Isolates were identified by biochemical profiling; antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by a modified Kirby–Bauer method. These findings were confirmed using Illumina whole genome nucleotide sequence data. All sequences were compared to the outbreak strain from Southern Pakistan and typed using the S. Typhi genotyping scheme. All isolates were confirmed by a sequence analysis to harbor an IncY plasmid and the CTX-M-15 ceftriaxone resistance determinant. All isolates were of the same genotypic background as the outbreak strain from Sindh province. We report the first emergence of XDR S. Typhi in Punjab province of Pakistan confirmed by whole genome sequencing. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Typhi; typhoid fever; XDR; cephalosporin resistance; Lahore Salmonella Typhi; typhoid fever; XDR; cephalosporin resistance; Lahore
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Rasheed, F.; Saeed, M.; Alikhan, N.-F.; Baker, D.; Khurshid, M.; Ainsworth, E.V.; Turner, A.K.; Imran, A.A.; Rasool, M.H.; Saqalein, M.; Nisar, M.A.; Fayyaz ur Rehman, M.; Wain, J.; Yasir, M.; Langridge, G.C.; Ikram, A. Emergence of Resistance to Fluoroquinolones and Third-Generation Cephalosporins in Salmonella Typhi in Lahore, Pakistan. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1336.

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