Lactic acid fermentation is one of the oldest methods used worldwide to preserve cereals and vegetables. Europe and Asia have long and huge traditions in the manufacturing of lactic acid bacteria (LAB)-fermented foods. They have different cultures, religions and ethnicities with the available resources that strongly influence their food habits. Many differences and similarities exist with respect to raw substrates, products and microbes involved in the manufacture of fermented products. Many of them are produced on industrial scale with starter cultures, while others rely on spontaneous fermentation, produced homemade or in traditional events. In Europe, common LAB-fermented products made from cereals include traditional breads, leavened sweet doughs, and low and non-alcoholic cereal-based beverages, whereas among vegetable ones prevail sauerkraut, cucumber pickles and olives. In Asia, the prevailing LAB-fermented cereals include acid-leavened steamed breads or pancakes from rice and wheat, whereas LAB-fermented vegetables are more multifarious, such as kimchi, sinki, khalpi, dakguadong, jiang-gua, soidon and sauerkraut. Here, an overview of the main Euro-Asiatic LAB-fermented cereals and vegetables was proposed, underlining the relevance of fermentation as a tool for improving cereals and vegetables, and highlighting some differences and similarities among the Euro-Asiatic products. The study culminated in “omics”-based and future-oriented studies of the fermented products.
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