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Article

Diversity of Transmission Outcomes Following Co-Infection of Sheep with Strains of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and 8

1
The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, Surrey GU24 0NF, UK
2
National Centre for Vector Entomology, Institute of Parasitology, Vetsuisse Faculty, 8057 Zurich, Switzerland
3
University of Nottingham, Sutton Bonington, Leicestershire LE12 5RD, UK
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the studies.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(6), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060851
Received: 5 March 2020 / Revised: 31 May 2020 / Accepted: 2 June 2020 / Published: 5 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bluetongue Virus)
Bluetongue virus (BTV) causes an economically important disease, bluetongue (BT), in susceptible ruminants and is transmitted primarily by species of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Since 2006, northern Europe has experienced multiple incursions of BTV through a variety of routes of entry, including major outbreaks of strains of BTV serotype 8 (BTV-8) and BTV serotype 1 (BTV-1), which overlapped in distribution within southern Europe. In this paper, we examined the variation in response to coinfection with strains of BTV-1 and BTV-8 using an in vivo transmission model involving Culicoides sonorensis, low passage virus strains, and sheep sourced in the United Kingdom. In the study, four sheep were simultaneously infected using BTV-8 and BTV-1 intrathoracically inoculated C. sonorensis and co-infections of all sheep with both strains were established. However, there were significant variations in both the initiation and peak levels of virus RNA detected throughout the experiment, as well as in the infection rates in the C. sonorensis that were blood-fed on experimentally infected sheep at peak viremia. This is discussed in relation to the potential for reassortment between these strains in the field and the policy implications for detection of BTV strains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Arbovirus; Culicoides; Orbivirus; bluetongue; ruminant; infectious disease; transmission Arbovirus; Culicoides; Orbivirus; bluetongue; ruminant; infectious disease; transmission
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MDPI and ACS Style

Veronesi, E.; Darpel, K.; Gubbins, S.; Batten, C.; Nomikou, K.; Mertens, P.; Carpenter, S. Diversity of Transmission Outcomes Following Co-Infection of Sheep with Strains of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and 8. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060851

AMA Style

Veronesi E, Darpel K, Gubbins S, Batten C, Nomikou K, Mertens P, Carpenter S. Diversity of Transmission Outcomes Following Co-Infection of Sheep with Strains of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and 8. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(6):851. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060851

Chicago/Turabian Style

Veronesi, Eva, Karin Darpel, Simon Gubbins, Carrie Batten, Kyriaki Nomikou, Peter Mertens, and Simon Carpenter. 2020. "Diversity of Transmission Outcomes Following Co-Infection of Sheep with Strains of Bluetongue Virus Serotype 1 and 8" Microorganisms 8, no. 6: 851. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8060851

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