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Article

Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Alkali Tolerance Mechanism in Puccinellia tenuiflora Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

1
College of Landscape Architecture, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
2
Key Laboratory of Saline-alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration, Ministry of Education, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030327
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 7 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 26 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plant Microbial Interactions)
Soil alkalization is a major environmental threat that affects plant distribution and yield in northeastern China. Puccinellia tenuiflora is an alkali-tolerant grass species that is used for salt-alkali grassland restoration. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) enhance P. tenuiflora responses to alkali stress. Here, metabolite profiling in P. tenuiflora seedlings with or without arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) under alkali stress was conducted using liquid chromatography combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC/TOF-MS). The results showed that AMF colonization increased seedling biomass under alkali stress. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projections to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) demonstrated that non-AM and AM seedlings showed different responses under alkali stress. A heat map analysis showed that the levels of 88 metabolites were significantly changed in non-AM seedlings, but those of only 31 metabolites were significantly changed in AM seedlings. Moreover, the levels of a total of 62 metabolites were significantly changed in P. tenuiflora seedlings after AMF inoculation. The results suggested that AMF inoculation significantly increased amino acid, organic acid, flavonoid and sterol contents to improve osmotic adjustment and maintain cell membrane stability under alkali stress. P. tenuiflora seedlings after AMF inoculation produced more plant hormones (salicylic acid and abscisic acid) than the non-AM seedlings, probably to enhance the antioxidant system and facilitate ion balance under stress conditions. In conclusion, these findings provide new insights into the metabolic mechanisms of P. tenuiflora seedlings with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under alkali conditions and clarify the role of AM in the molecular regulation of this species under alkali stress. View Full-Text
Keywords: alkali stress; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; LC/TOF-MS; metabolomics; Puccinellia tenuiflora alkali stress; arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi; LC/TOF-MS; metabolomics; Puccinellia tenuiflora
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yang, C.; Zhao, W.; Wang, Y.; Zhang, L.; Huang, S.; Lin, J. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Alkali Tolerance Mechanism in Puccinellia tenuiflora Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030327

AMA Style

Yang C, Zhao W, Wang Y, Zhang L, Huang S, Lin J. Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Alkali Tolerance Mechanism in Puccinellia tenuiflora Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(3):327. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030327

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yang, Chunxue, Wenna Zhao, Yingnan Wang, Liang Zhang, Shouchen Huang, and Jixiang Lin. 2020. "Metabolomics Analysis Reveals the Alkali Tolerance Mechanism in Puccinellia tenuiflora Plants Inoculated with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi" Microorganisms 8, no. 3: 327. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030327

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