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Open AccessArticle

Biostimulating Gut Microbiome with Bilberry Anthocyanin Combo to Enhance Anti-PD-L1 Efficiency against Murine Colon Cancer

Key Lab of Industrial Biocatalysis, Ministry of Education, Department of Chemical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 175; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020175
Received: 6 January 2020 / Revised: 17 January 2020 / Accepted: 23 January 2020 / Published: 25 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Gut Microbiota)
Recent advances have revealed the essential role of gut microbiomes in the therapeutic efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). Inspired by biostimulation, a method using nutrients to accelerate the growth of soil microorganisms and the recovery of soil microbial consortia, here we propose a bilberry anthocyanin combo containing chitosan and low molecular citrus pectin (LCP), in which LCP–chitosan is used to encapsulate anthocyanins so to enhance its digestive stability and, moreover, modulate the microbiome more favorable for the PD-L1 blockade treatment. Using murine MC38 colon cancer as a model system, we examined the effects of the combo on modulating the gut microbiome and therapeutic efficiency of PD-L1 blockade treatment. It was shown that bilberry anthocyanins enriched the subdominant species, increased both the concentration and the proportion of butyrate in feces and enhanced intratumoral CD8+ T cell infiltrations. The application of the bilberry anthocyanin combo restored the species diversity of gut microbiome decreased by LCP–chitosan and achieved the best control of tumor growth. These preliminary results indicated unprecedented opportunities of probiotics combo in improving the therapeutic efficiency of immune checkpoint inhibitor through manipulating gut microbiome. View Full-Text
Keywords: immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; gut microbiome; bilberry anthocyanins; low molecular citrus pectin; chitosan immune checkpoint inhibitors; immunotherapy; gut microbiome; bilberry anthocyanins; low molecular citrus pectin; chitosan
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Liu, X.; Wang, L.; Jing, N.; Jiang, G.; Liu, Z. Biostimulating Gut Microbiome with Bilberry Anthocyanin Combo to Enhance Anti-PD-L1 Efficiency against Murine Colon Cancer. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 175.

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