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Open AccessArticle

Identification and Characterization of 33 Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolates from Agricultural Fields from Eleven Widely Distributed Countries by Whole Genome Sequencing

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Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, 4000 Roskilde, Denmark
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Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, 6726 Szeged, Hungary
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Department of Food Engineering, Hitit University, 19030 Çorum, Turkey
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Wageningen Plant Research, Wageningen University, 6708PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Organic Chemistry, Kaunas University of Technology, 50254 Kaunas, Lithuania
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Department of Food Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
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Plant Protection Department, Agricultural Institute of Slovenia, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
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Sumitomo Chemical Agro Europe, 1260 Nyon, Switzerland
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Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Institute of Food Technology, University of Novi Sad, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
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Sfax Preparatory Engineering Institute, Sfax University, P.O. Box 1172, 3000 Sfax, Tunisia
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Centre of Biotechnology of Sfax, Biopesticides Laboratory, P.O. Box 1177, 3018 Sfax, Tunisia
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Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Food Preservation, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
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Micalis Institute, INRA, Université Paris-Saclay, 78 350 Jouy-en-Josas, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 2028; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122028
Received: 10 November 2020 / Revised: 4 December 2020 / Accepted: 12 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Pathogens in Primary Production Systems)
The phylogeny, identification, and characterization of 33 B. cereus sensu lato isolates originating from 17 agricultural soils from 11 countries were analyzed on the basis of whole genome sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses revealed all isolates are divided into six groups, which follows the generally accepted phylogenetic division of B. cereus sensu lato isolates. Four different identification methods resulted in a variation in the identity of the isolates, as none of the isolates were identified as the same species by all four methods—only the recent identification method proposed directly reflected the phylogeny of the isolates. This points to the importance of describing the basis and method used for the identification. The presence and percent identity of the protein product of 19 genes potentially involved in pathogenicity divided the 33 isolates into groups corresponding to phylogenetic division of the isolates. This suggests that different pathotypes exist and that it is possible to differentiate between them by comparing the percent identity of proteins potentially involved in pathogenicity. This also reveals that a basic link between phylogeny and pathogenicity is likely to exist. The geographical distribution of the isolates is not random: they are distributed in relation to their division into the six phylogenetic groups, which again relates to different ecotypes with different temperature growth ranges. This means that we find it easier to analyze and understand the results obtained from the 33 B. cereus sensu lato isolates in a phylogenetic, patho-type and ecotype-oriented context, than in a context based on uncertain identification at the species level. View Full-Text
Keywords: ecotypes; patho-types; phylogeny; geographical-distribution; Bacillus mycoides; Bacillus toyonensis; Bacillus mosaicus; Bacillus thuringiensis ecotypes; patho-types; phylogeny; geographical-distribution; Bacillus mycoides; Bacillus toyonensis; Bacillus mosaicus; Bacillus thuringiensis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zervas, A.; Aggerbeck, M.R.; Allaga, H.; Güzel, M.; Hendriks, M.; Jonuškienė, I.; Kedves, O.; Kupeli, A.; Lamovšek, J.; Mülner, P.; Munday, D.; Namli, Ş.; Samut, H.; Tomičić, R.; Tomičić, Z.; Yeni, F.; Zghal, R.Z.; Zhao, X.; Sanchis-Borja, V.; Hendriksen, N.B. Identification and Characterization of 33 Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolates from Agricultural Fields from Eleven Widely Distributed Countries by Whole Genome Sequencing. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122028

AMA Style

Zervas A, Aggerbeck MR, Allaga H, Güzel M, Hendriks M, Jonuškienė I, Kedves O, Kupeli A, Lamovšek J, Mülner P, Munday D, Namli Ş, Samut H, Tomičić R, Tomičić Z, Yeni F, Zghal RZ, Zhao X, Sanchis-Borja V, Hendriksen NB. Identification and Characterization of 33 Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolates from Agricultural Fields from Eleven Widely Distributed Countries by Whole Genome Sequencing. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122028

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zervas, Athanasios; Aggerbeck, Marie R.; Allaga, Henrietta; Güzel, Mustafa; Hendriks, Marc; Jonuškienė, IIona; Kedves, Orsolya; Kupeli, Ayse; Lamovšek, Janja; Mülner, Pascal; Munday, Denise; Namli, Şahin; Samut, Hilal; Tomičić, Ružica; Tomičić, Zorica; Yeni, Filiz; Zghal, Raida Z.; Zhao, Xingchen; Sanchis-Borja, Vincent; Hendriksen, Niels B. 2020. "Identification and Characterization of 33 Bacillus cereus sensu lato Isolates from Agricultural Fields from Eleven Widely Distributed Countries by Whole Genome Sequencing" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 2028. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122028

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