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Review

Processing of Metals and Metalloids by Actinobacteria: Cell Resistance Mechanisms and Synthesis of Metal(loid)-Based Nanostructures

1
Department of Biological, Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (STEBICEF), University of Palermo, 90128 Palermo, Italy
2
Department of Biological Sciences, Calgary University, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
3
Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT), University of Bologna, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 2027; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122027
Received: 6 December 2020 / Revised: 15 December 2020 / Accepted: 16 December 2020 / Published: 18 December 2020
Metal(loid)s have a dual biological role as micronutrients and stress agents. A few geochemical and natural processes can cause their release in the environment, although most metal-contaminated sites derive from anthropogenic activities. Actinobacteria include high GC bacteria that inhabit a wide range of terrestrial and aquatic ecological niches, where they play essential roles in recycling or transforming organic and inorganic substances. The metal(loid) tolerance and/or resistance of several members of this phylum rely on mechanisms such as biosorption and extracellular sequestration by siderophores and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), bioaccumulation, biotransformation, and metal efflux processes, which overall contribute to maintaining metal homeostasis. Considering the bioprocessing potential of metal(loid)s by Actinobacteria, the development of bioremediation strategies to reclaim metal-contaminated environments has gained scientific and economic interests. Moreover, the ability of Actinobacteria to produce nanoscale materials with intriguing physical-chemical and biological properties emphasizes the technological value of these biotic approaches. Given these premises, this review summarizes the strategies used by Actinobacteria to cope with metal(loid) toxicity and their undoubted role in bioremediation and bionanotechnology fields. View Full-Text
Keywords: metal resistance mechanisms; actinobacteria; metal stress response; metal-based nanostructures; biogenic nanoscale materials metal resistance mechanisms; actinobacteria; metal stress response; metal-based nanostructures; biogenic nanoscale materials
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MDPI and ACS Style

Presentato, A.; Piacenza, E.; Turner, R.J.; Zannoni, D.; Cappelletti, M. Processing of Metals and Metalloids by Actinobacteria: Cell Resistance Mechanisms and Synthesis of Metal(loid)-Based Nanostructures. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122027

AMA Style

Presentato A, Piacenza E, Turner RJ, Zannoni D, Cappelletti M. Processing of Metals and Metalloids by Actinobacteria: Cell Resistance Mechanisms and Synthesis of Metal(loid)-Based Nanostructures. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122027

Chicago/Turabian Style

Presentato, Alessandro, Elena Piacenza, Raymond J. Turner, Davide Zannoni, and Martina Cappelletti. 2020. "Processing of Metals and Metalloids by Actinobacteria: Cell Resistance Mechanisms and Synthesis of Metal(loid)-Based Nanostructures" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 2027. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8122027

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