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Correction

Correction: Krauss, J., et al. Epichloë Endophyte Infection Rates and Alkaloid Content in Commercially Available Grass Seed Mixtures in Europe. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 498

1
Department of Animal Ecology and Tropical Biology, University of Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg, Germany
2
Noble Research Institute LLC, Ardmore, OK 73401, USA
3
Department of Pharmaceutical Biology, Metabolomics Core Unit, University of Würzburg, 97082 Würzburg, Germany
4
Swiss Institute of Allergy and Asthma Research (SIAF), University of Zurich, and Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (SIB), 7265 Davos, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1616; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101616
Received: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 19 October 2020 / Published: 21 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fungal Endophytes and Their Interactions with Plants)
The authors wish to make the following correction to this paper [1]:
After the publication of the manuscript, the authors recognized that there is a discrepancy in Table 1 in five seed mixture compositions (S_10, S_13, S_17, S_29 and S_33), due to differences between the information in catalogs and the actual product labels. The authors changed the seed compositions and suppliers, where necessary, to match with product labels on the seed mixture packages. We also deleted two sentences from the discussion regarding speculations on possible infections of the seed variety NEW ORLEANS, which was not a component in any of the tested seed mixtures.
We changed Table 1 and present the correct varieties here.
These inconsistencies occurred as the information on seed varieties were wrongly taken from catalogs instead of package labels. We want to point out that contaminations with Epichloë infected seeds could have occurred at different production steps of the seed mixtures (breeders, producer of seed cultivars, producer of the seed mixture, trader, shop/market, etc.). Therefore, our study cannot be used to detect the source of the Epichloë contaminations of the seed varieties.
The authors want to point out that seed mixture S_33 did not contain the perennial ryegrass variety NEW ORLEANS, which was therefore not tested. Speculations on possible infections of the variety NEW ORLEANS in the discussion are not valid and we apologize for this unjustified speculation.
Therefore the authors would like to delete these sentences from the discussion: “The turfgrass seed mixture S_33 contains 5% of the perennial ryegrass variety NEW ORLEANS, which is listed as a top American breeding variety and could be the source of Epichloë infected seeds. The low percentage of this variety in the seed mixture could result in sampling variation, which may explain why 8.7% of E+ seeds were detected, and why the alkaloid quantification results differed between the two laboratories.”
Following a reviewer’s comment, we meanwhile grew plants from the four grass seed mixtures (S_10, S_24, S_32 and S_33) which were Epichloë infected and contained alkaloids, and tested 8- and 20-week old seeded plants for Epichloë alkaloids. We used 30 randomly picked seeds per seed mixture and tested eight grass samples containing about ten randomly picked grass tillers per seed mixture. In S_10 and S_33 we detected peramine and lolitrem B. In S_32, we detected peramine, lolitrem B and in addition ergovaline. In S_24, we could not detect alkaloids in the plants. As we only picked 30 random seeds, it could be possible that no infected seeds were grown from S_24. As three of the four endophyte and alkaloid positive seed mixtures produced alkaloids in the grown plants, we confirm our result that infected seed mixtures can introduce vertebrate toxic alkaloids into the agricultural environment.
The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused to the readers by these changes.

Funding

This research received no external funding.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Krauss, J.; Vikuk, V.; Young, C.A.; Krischke, M.; Mueller, M.J.; Baerenfaller, K. Epichloë endophyte infection rates and alkaloid content in commercially available grass seed mixtures in Europe. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 498. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Table 1. Composition of grassland seed mixtures, bold indicate seed mixtures with infections of Epichloë spp. and detected vertebrate toxic alkaloids. Letters in brackets after the product name indicate if seed mixtures are mainly used as forage grass (F) or turf grass (T) according to supplier information. Supplier names are in italic. Changed information is highlighted in grey.
Table 1. Composition of grassland seed mixtures, bold indicate seed mixtures with infections of Epichloë spp. and detected vertebrate toxic alkaloids. Letters in brackets after the product name indicate if seed mixtures are mainly used as forage grass (F) or turf grass (T) according to supplier information. Supplier names are in italic. Changed information is highlighted in grey.
IDPerennial Ryegrass VarietiesTall Fescue VarietiesOther GrassesProduct
S_10 *30 % BARCLAY II
15 % BAREURO
20% BARLICUM
20% BARLIBRO
15 % BAROMARIO
--Regenerations-Mischung RPR, Eurogreen, Barenbrug(T)
S_11Unknown variety in unknown percentage-Poa pratensis, Festuca pratensis,
Dactylis glomerata, Phleum pratense, Festuca rubra, Agrostis
Gräsermischung Weidesaat, Kräuterwiese (F)
S_1225% lawn type, unknown variety
25% pasture type, unknown variety
-20 % Poa pratensis,
20 % Phleum pratense,
10 % Festuca rubra
Country Horse 2117, DSV (F)
S_13 *14 % CARNAC
21 % EURODIAMOND
7 % DOUBLE 4n
8 % FABIAN 4n
8 % CSI CORSICA
17 % ZÜRICH
-25 % Poa pratensisRegeneration Highspeed, UFA (T)
S_14-100 % LIPALMA-Camena Samen (F)
S_1533 % MATHILDE
34 % WADI
33 % BELIDA
--Elite Gvo (ELITE Grünland Nr. 5), Rudloff (F)
S_16 #20 % EURODIAMOND,
15 % SIRTAKY
15 % BARCESAR,
35 % MEANDRE
15 % Poa pratensisReitbahn, UFA (T)
S_17 *25 % ASTONHOCKEY20 % HYKOR25 % Festuca pratensis,
20 % Phleum pratense,
10 % Poa pratensis
Country Öko 2217, DSV (F)
S_1815 % BOYNE
20 % TODDINGTON
20 % INDICUS 1
15 % POLIM
15 % ARUSI
15 % GARBOR
--Profi Nachsaat Gvo, Tystofte Fonden (F)
S_19100 % KARATOS--Camena Samen (F)
S_20--7 % Agrostis capillaris,
3 % Alopecurus pratensis,
12 % Arrhenatherum elatius,
10 % Cynosurus cristatus,
10 % Dactylis glomerata,
15 % Festuca rubra,
1 % Holcus lanatus, 1
3 % Phleum pratense,
18 % Poa pratensis,
1 % Trisetum flavescens
Heuwiese für Pferde, Appels Wilde Samen (F)
S_2110 % KARATOS
20 % KUBUS,
15 % TWYMAX
-25 % Phleum pratense
12 % Poa pratensis
15 % Festuca rubra
Pferdeweide 1, Camena Samen (F)
S_228% PREMIUM-18% Festulolium, 18% Phleum pratense, 15% Festuca pratensisRotkleegras 91, Camena Samen (F)
S_23100 % POLIM--Camena Samen (F)
S_2412 % BELLEVUE
20 % BOYNE
40 % STEFANI
-18 % Phleum pratense
10 % Poa pratensis
Pferdeweide Nachsaat, Raiffeisen (F)
S_2520 % IVANA
10 % TIVOLI
20 % SW BIRGER
20 % SWAJ10 % Poa pratensis
20 % Phleum pratense
Pferdegreen Öko PR940, BSV Saaten (F)
S_26100 % TWYMAX--Camena Samen (F)
S_2728 % MATHILDE, 23 % ALFAN,
13 % BELIDA
-10 % Festuca pratensis, 5 % Poa pratensis, 21 % Phleum pratenseElite 20, Rudloff (F)
S_2825 % MARAVA
30 % BOKSER
30 % WADI
-15 % Phleum pratenseEquitana Nachsaat Gvo, Rudloff (F)
S_29 *10 % TURFGOLD45 % BARCESAR,
25 % DEBUSSY 1
20 % Poa pratensisMonaco-Mischung RSM, Eurogreen (T)
S_3011 % TREND
5 % KARATOS
10 % TWYMAX
-10 % Festuca pratensis,
11 % Festulolium fedoro,
7 % Dactylis glomerata,
5 % Poa pratensis,
5 % Festuca rubra,
14 % Phleum pratense
Kräuterweide, Camena Samen (F)
S_31Unknown variety in unknown percentage-Festuca pratensis, Poa pratensis, Poa trivialis, Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense, Alopecurus pratensis, Cynosurus cristatus, Elymus repensPferdeweide-Reparatursaat, Kräuterwiese (F)
S_3215 % MARAVA
15 % BOKSER
15 % WADI
-25 % Phleum pratense
20 % Poa pratensis
10 % Festuca rubra
Equitana Universal, Rudloff (F)
S_33 *9 % COLUMBINE
7 % DOUBLE/FABIAN
12% ZURICH
5 % CSI CORSICA
12 % SIRTAKY
-40 % Poa pratensis,
15 % Festuca rubra
Primera Highspeed, UFA (T)
* Seed composition as indicated on package different to that in online catalogs. # Seed composition not indicated on package.
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