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Open AccessArticle

Biofilm Produced In Vitro by Piscirickettsia salmonis Generates Differential Cytotoxicity Levels and Expression Patterns of Immune Genes in the Atlantic Salmon Cell Line SHK-1

1
Laboratorio de Inmunología y Estrés de Organismos Acuáticos, Instituto de Patología Animal, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Campus Isla Teja, Valdivia 5090000, Chile
2
Interdisciplinary Center for Aquaculture Research (INCAR), Concepción 4070386, Chile
3
Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile
4
Instituto de Bioquímica y Microbiología, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia 5090000, Chile
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(10), 1609; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101609
Received: 8 August 2020 / Revised: 10 September 2020 / Accepted: 19 September 2020 / Published: 20 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Biofilm)
Piscirickettsia salmonis is the causative agent of Piscirickettsiosis, an infectious disease with a high economic impact on the Chilean salmonid aquaculture industry. This bacterium produces biofilm as a potential resistance and persistence strategy against stressful environmental stimuli. However, the in vitro culture conditions that modulate biofilm formation as well as the effect of sessile bacteria on virulence and immune gene expression in host cells have not been described for P. salmonis. Therefore, this study aimed to analyze the biofilm formation by P. salmonis isolates under several NaCl and iron concentrations and to evaluate the virulence of planktonic and sessile bacteria, together with the immune gene expression induced by these bacterial conditions in an Atlantic salmon macrophage cell line. Our results showed that NaCl and Fe significantly increased biofilm production in the LF-89 type strain and EM-90-like isolates. Additionally, the planktonic EM-90 isolate and sessile LF-89 generated the highest virulence levels, associated with differential expression of il-1β, il-8, nf-κb, and iκb-α genes in SHK-1 cells. These results suggest that there is no single virulence pattern or gene expression profile induced by the planktonic or sessile condition of P. salmonis, which are dependent on each strain and bacterial condition used. View Full-Text
Keywords: Piscirickettsia salmonis; SRS; biofilm; gene expression; bacterial virulence Piscirickettsia salmonis; SRS; biofilm; gene expression; bacterial virulence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Santibañez, N.; Vega, M.; Pérez, T.; Yáñez, A.; González-Stegmaier, R.; Figueroa, J.; Enríquez, R.; Oliver, C.; Romero, A. Biofilm Produced In Vitro by Piscirickettsia salmonis Generates Differential Cytotoxicity Levels and Expression Patterns of Immune Genes in the Atlantic Salmon Cell Line SHK-1. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101609

AMA Style

Santibañez N, Vega M, Pérez T, Yáñez A, González-Stegmaier R, Figueroa J, Enríquez R, Oliver C, Romero A. Biofilm Produced In Vitro by Piscirickettsia salmonis Generates Differential Cytotoxicity Levels and Expression Patterns of Immune Genes in the Atlantic Salmon Cell Line SHK-1. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(10):1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101609

Chicago/Turabian Style

Santibañez, Natacha; Vega, Matías; Pérez, Tatiana; Yáñez, Alejandro; González-Stegmaier, Roxana; Figueroa, Jaime; Enríquez, Ricardo; Oliver, Cristian; Romero, Alex. 2020. "Biofilm Produced In Vitro by Piscirickettsia salmonis Generates Differential Cytotoxicity Levels and Expression Patterns of Immune Genes in the Atlantic Salmon Cell Line SHK-1" Microorganisms 8, no. 10: 1609. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101609

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